“Winter Solstice is the year”: In the past, what is the attention of this day?
The following is authorized by the publishing house, taken from the book of the “year-old”. More than the original text.
“When the year is good, I know how much”, Ma Da Yong, Dodolog Painting, Tsinghua University Press, July 2021.
First, winter solstice
The winter solstice is one of the most old customs. Its source can be traced back to the ancient Darukou Culture, and the Liangzhu Culture. According to the archaeological excavation, there is already a tall altar in the Liangzhu Site, one of the source of the future world. In the ritual ceremony of the Liangzhu, it is necessary to ignite a fire, which is similar to the “燔燔” in the future. It is necessary to continue to evolve, and a complete sacrifice is formed.
At the time of the Summer Wednesday generation, there is already a clear memorable ceremonial activity. Such as “Customs” cloud: “Xia Jiaping, Yin Yuqing, Zhou Wei big wax, Han change, Han Dynasty The date is the lunar calendar December, November, October. This is the origin of the late Qing Dynasty, God and the Vulgarity of the New Year. Zhou Dynasty, “Zhou Li Spring Officials · Shen Shi” contains: “Taking winter, the ghosts are ghost. Summer is from the summer, Zhiyu.” Zheng Note: “Tian people, Yang also. Yin also. Yangzheng and sacrifice ghosts, yin rose, riots, “This is from the Zhou Dynasty until the Qing Dynasty is more than two thousand years old, and the winter solstice holds the sacrifice, summer solstice is held. Exactly record.
So, what is the ritual of the winter solstice? According to historical records, the Zhou Dai Tianli is the establishment of altar, igniting fire, singing dancing, presenting jade cattle and sheep and other sacrifices, praying, and then burning the sacrifice (燔燔), this is huge for later generations. Regardless of the profitter of the past, these are all constant factors.
“Tokyo Meng Hua Lu”, “Wulin Old Person” and other books detailed in the Northern Song Song Dynasty ceremonial etiquette, such as “Tokyo Meng Hua Luo” volume ten, the Northern Song Dynasty began to prepare in the first three days of the winter, first went to Temple Qingcheng Spot, the winter solstice is more in the southern suburbs, go to the suburbs. The emperor replaced the ancient times, wearing twenty-four (liú) flat ceiling, Qingyu Dragon clothing (clothes system), Pei Jian Yu Pei; the subunion high three layers, seventy-two, the altar round three feet May. The card with “天 上” “Taizu Emperor”. With Yale: play music, jump, Wu dance; the emperor is greeted in the altar, such as three times. The scene is grand, the army, the instrument, and the hundred officials have reached a few hundred thousand people, surrounding the altar.
Ming Yong Dikin in Beijing, the Temple of Temple of Temple in Beijing. On the winter solstice, provide a sacrifice, the emperor and the gods, the ancestors of the ancestors, the Taoist Ancient music dance, the emperor from the god palace, and sacrificed the sacrifice. At this time, before dawn, the tree is going on on the light platform on the manda (the lamp inserting the dragon treasure wax, burning through the night). The emperor worships the gift, the guards ignite the firewood, incinerate the sacrifices, I wish the board (文), I wish the silk, burn the pine branch in the burn, let the Emperor Listen to the gift below. After the ceremonial is completed, it is buried into the squid, and the soul is not expected to sacrifice the gods. The height is on, so the fever; the place is under, so it is bloody.
Liao, Jin, Yuan and other dynasties have also had a custom of sacrifice, with Han nationality. The Manchu has also sacrificed the day, and the winter solstice is in the hospital. It is placed on the table, and the heavens will be sealed, and the pig will sacrifice and sacrifice the ancestors. The interior of the hospital, the roar of the gourd, there is a hug, the sacrifice, and the scorpion will give me a meat. After the sacrifice, everyone eats white meat, throws the intestines, and lets younon.
Second, the winter solstice
The winter solstice has a custom of the ancestors. For example, Quanzhou in Fujian is going to the hometown in the winter. Individual regions also go to the grave to burn paper, send cold clothes. But most is at home or in the ancestors. This style is also derived from the ancient sacrifice and the ancestrality. As early as Yin Dynasty, I went to the temple in November to sacrifice the ancestors and the folks. Eastern Han Dynasty, “Four People’s Monthly” records the winter solstice of the Han Dynasty, but also ancestors: “The day of the winter solstice, recommending the cake. First recommend Xuan Ming in the well, and the ancestors. Sweep, Such as recommended bad dide. His former, the east, the old, the old, such as the day. “The winter solstice will sacrifice the winter God and the gods, Xuan Ming (also called Panyu) and the ancestors, and praise the respect, such as the first month of the first month One general. The Southern Song Dynasty “Wulin Old Body” records at the time of the winter solstice: “Enjoy the first time with the ravioli. There is a ‘winter 馄, year, ancient a like cooking woven, the pasta. Van, one More than ten colors, the ‘百’. “” Qing Jiaxue “contains Qing Dynasty Suzhou:” (Winter Swarf) Compared with the house, the powder is a group, with sugar meat, vegetables, soy soy sauce, Lugu, etc. In order to sacrifice the stove, the name is aunt. So far, there are still winter solstice ancestors. Quanzhou is also “winter solstice” and passed to Taiwan and other places.
In the past, in the winter solstice, Henan also had a sacrificial activity, giving up with giving, worshiping to seek Changlong. In Dongguan, Guangdong, in the winter solstice, visit the Temple Association, worship the twelve girl. There is a woman who takes a line in the temple, and when it is separated by the incense burner of the 18th Anti-therastity, the week is beginning. Insert the line incense, see if the last fragrance is inserted in front of the goddess holding a boy, is it. The Chaozhou, Guangdong Province, also sacrificed the bureaucrat. There is also a sacrifice of the winter solstice every winter solstice.
Third, winter diet
In the Qing Dynasty, Beijing and Suzhou and other places pay attention to the Winter Festival, the so-called “fat winter skinny”, that is, it is rather than thrift, and it can’t be in the winter solstice. People or use a variety of foods to give each other, called “winter solo”, and celebrate each other, calling to worship. So far, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fu Taiwan, two Guangfang people still prevailed in the Winter New Year, in which the ancestors, eating glutinous rice products and gatherings, including many interesting diet.
Such as Jiangsu Zhejiang eats a winter to meat, winter solstice fish and chicken duck. The winter solstice is boiled with pork and soy sauce, and it can be born to be strong. The winter solstice is to leave the fish after childbearing, and the bowl is placed in the rice bucket with a bowl. This is to eat fish on New Year’s Eve, meaning “annual” is similar.
Some areas of the northern areas, such as Beijing, Tianjin, and the winter solstice to eat dumplings or 馄饨. Proverb: “Winter solstice is in the summer.” The folk legend is to commemorate the Shanghai Mingzhu Ji Zhongjing. He opened a house in the winter solstice, with mutton with the drug into the face, making the ear-shaped “delicate” to treat the frozen ears. The latterman dumplings in the winter solstice, and the ear will not freeze it. In fact, the winter solstice should be traced back to ancient sacrifice food, and the moon-shaped 馄饨 in the north and south is, and there may be no relationship with Zhang Zhongjing.
In some parts of Fujian and two wide, there are Pills. Mix the glutinous rice powder into a group, rub into a solid or adding crust, cook the water, sacrifice the ancestors, called the winter solstice, like the Yuanxiao, the resolution of the family reunion, the meaning of the whole thing. According to legend, the winter solstice is the son of the son of the south of Minnan, and the tears drip into the bowl in the bowl. Some people have relatives, and they must put on the winter solstice before the gathering of the feast. Or dry the circle, leave the day of returning home to eat.
Of course, the winter solstice round should be from the ancients who have a ancestors and sacrifice. The north used wheat flour, the south is lacking, and the glutinous rice flour will be used. “Qing Jiaxi” said “Following the Powder as a group” in the winter solstice group, “There is a filling, the worship of the downtown, the winter solstice is also the best; no stuffing is the powder, the winter solstice is goddened Also “, that is, earlier.
After the winter solstice of the Fujian, he wore a round (or called the winter round, the doll soup), and the songs were listened to the children. Such as this: “Pills tried, high year festivals. Red Red Water Party Chrysanthemum, Sink Brother Brother. Adults will increase the blessing, and sing poetry.” It is full of happy atmosphere. There is a red and white color, or plastic with a wet rice powder into a small play, such as cattle sheep, peach, orange and other livestock, fruit, like really, also dyed, yellow, green, cyan, very beautiful, Take five animals and prosperity, and the meaning of Fengguo is also the traditional tradition of the winter solstice. “Zhanghua County” has a description. When the soup is cooked, it will eat two two places, eat the last spoon, such as the remaining two, that is, like happiness. Some are also sticking to the door, windows, tables, cabinets, beds and other conspicuous bisters, and then take the baking or edible after the end of the year. In addition, the circle was baked, and the pregnant woman was born. “Quanzhou Guanzhi” contains “addition” is equivalent. Today’s winter solstice, the filling is salty and sweet, the workmanship is fine, more delicious.
In winter, eat vegetables, people prepare some salted vegetables in the winter solstice, which is also from the prior Qin. “Book of Songs”: “I have a purpose, it is also in the winter.” Zhu Xi “collects”: “The reason why I gather together the beautiful vegetarian, the cover is in the moon.” “” ” Month ordered the winter saramitish, ancient worldwide (zū). The folk pickles mainly have sealing method: put the snow in the snow, mustard, the vanda, mustard, etc. , Octagonal, etc. White cabbage, cucumber, red white radish, etc. can be eaten with salt. You can also pick up the cabbage with salt to pick up the moon, control the water, cut into silk and cooked hot pot, and the flavor is excellent.
Fourth, winter entertainment
There are a variety of seasons in winter, such as a snow. “Wulin’s old things”, the three-year-old Southern Song court is very popular, watching in the Mingyuan Tower, and “Houyuan enters the size of the snow lion, and is used as the boldling color, and the snow, snow light, snow mountain, etc. And drops of crispies and incidents, and in the golden pots, playing “.
In the Ming Dynasty, “West Lake Top” records the drama home, “four-point-to-see” directory of health care home, “Winter time,” in winter, there are soaked, and enjoy the winter flowers (mountain tea), plum blossom , Bamboo, etc.: “Snow frozen is sunny. Snow strategy is looking for plum. Trim Mountain is looking at Jiang Tian Shuxi. Xixi is playing snow. Hill play to enjoy the flowers. On the top of the sky. Listening to others. Sweep the snow cooking tea Painting. Snow Night Tilate Tema. The window listening to the snow knocked bamboo. New Year’s Eve, Wushan see the lattop. Snow Town Sea Building is late. “Fully showed the interest in the winter snow. Zhang Wei’s “Tao Yu Meng Yi” records that the literary and people of the Ming Dynasty have “Lake Care Paper” “Longshan Xue”, and it is also very handsome. The snow becomes an important entertainment in winter.
The snow is often combined with the snow in the snow, such as Meng Haoran, the Tang Dynasty, Meng Haoran, is the important performance of the traditional painting. In the Qing Dynasty, Li Yu “leisurely” contained, in order to better enjoy the snow, he invented the flower, taking the paper bamboo into the cottage, China’s public char charcoal, or used tents, in the plum, true People amazed! As for the “Red Man Dream” in the Snow Snow Snow, the description of the snow in the snow, but also the population. Winter appreciation, flowers, bamboo, loose, etc. are also Yat …
As for the game in the ice, there is snowball, and the ice and snow castle will attack each other. There is also a snow lion, snowman, snow mountain, etc., this is the favorite of children. Stack of snow plastics is not a small crafts that are born in children, but sweeping snow in the snow, molding a large lion, Luo Han, Snow Mountain, etc. The “Baizi” of the Qing Dynasty painter Yu Zhi’s “Baizi”, there are several children who are piled up in the courtyard.
The snow lamp is to play with ice and snow. It has now developed into large ice lights in Northeast.
There is also a sliding, skating, sledge, etc. in the north. The slide is the iceberg that is soaked to be high and four feasters, and the people climbed and slipped down, and they made a variety of patterns, especially in Beijing. “Picture” has a “sliding” painting this scene. Skating, is a skate, the sole is embedded, sliding on ice, similar to today. Sledge, also called ice bed, make a shelf with a wooden board, a nail cross-strap, and an iron strip, push, pull or use iron to brazing ice as a power, shuttle on ice, or put the two-footed side sledge On the hillside ice, one person is sitting on, sliding slopes, similar to modern ice movement, or traction with group dogs.
In ancient times, there is a grand ice and hun, held by the court organization. “Song History” is the record of the emperor “Fortunately, I can see”. There is also ice and hips in the Qing Dynasty.
Five, nine nine cold map
After the winter solstice, I entered the nineteen days, one nine until ninety called “Nine”. In this 1998th day, there is a winter day, and I have to usher in bright spring. According to the traditional statement, the most cold is three or four nine. Generally, four nine, the weather is slowly turning warm.
The ancient generation has produced a “ninety-nine cold map”, which is also the meaning of the winter. It can be calculated to calculate time, calendar, weather, and beautiful decorative paintings, so it has been passed down, regardless of the court folk activities.
There are many forms in ninety-nine cold. Such as the text of the text, consisting of words, usually “Tria, Trendow, Treas, Spring Balls”, or “Yan Nanfei Liu Shilu is Spring” (the old geese, the bottom of the geese “good”, ); Or “Spring pre-holiday season is a fragrant room”, all the words are all nine paintings, and the total eighty-one paintings. Both hook or printed on paper, each painting is blank. When calculating time from the winter solstice, it is dyed in a painted red every day, and the spring is coming, and the full map is red. It is also possible to record weather conditions such as wind and snow in the wind and snow in the stroke, it is a good weather record.
In addition, “Emperor Jingjing” volume: “There is a straight work nine pleasant, Jijiu Circle, engraved, with the song of ninety-nine songs, telling its cold (Yù, warm hot mean) Waiting. “That is, the eighty circle is printed on a paper volume, indicating the date, using Zhu Hongqing a round every day, and it is out of dying.
In order to record the weather, apply a half circle in the same day, the sun is applied to the half-circle, and the wind is placed on the left, and the right half of the rain is placed, and the snow is coated.
There is also a fairy nine nine cold map. Yuan Dynasty Yang Yunfu “Zi Jinzi” rolled down: “Trial window nine nine pictures, Yu Han exhaustion warm back to the beginning. The plum flower is free white, and I saw the present apricot plant.” Working: “After the winter solstice, The plum flowers are in the window, the beautiful makeup, the day is routed (Yān, ie rougame) lipid map, the eighty-one circle is both feet, it is turned to apricot, “” Emperor Jingjing Sketch “Volume 2: “Winter Solst, Picture of Mei Mei, a viny of eighty, the daily dyeing, the petals, the girlfriend, the spring is deep,” ‘nine nine cold picture’. “Yes in the paper painted a plum flower, there are eight Eleven petals, draw a petal every day, Su Mei changed to become apricot, it will be nine.
Qianzi nine nine cold map.
In addition, there are fish-shaped cold, and the walnuts are cold. The fish-shaped picture is the yin and yang fish (similar to eight gossip southern and yang map) on paper; the money pattern is arranged in eighty ancient money, both appendix poetry. The gourd figure is to put the text into a gourd; the baby is printed on the paper twelve zodiac with children. Its content is perfect. Nowadays, the cold map is still patterned, and it is also good when recording the year.
Caving the way to adhere to “Jiujiu Song”, it is a popularity of meteorological knowledge, promoting the weather, such as the Song Dynasty Lu Yu’s “Wu Xia Tian Family”. The “West Lake Tourism” also contains: “One Nine-nine, summoning does not shoot; three nine twenty seven, fenced (wind scraping fence); four nine thirty six, night sleep Terminal (the same is like a place in the evening house); five nine forty five, the sun opens the door; six95, poor is strong; seven nine or sixty three, cloth 衲; eight nine seventy two, cat Children seek in yin; the nineteen eighty, the plow is all. “Qing Dynasty” Qing Jiaci “in the Qing Dynasty,” Jiujiu Song “, who complained to the poor, and remained the first change:” 192 Nine, the same time, three nine or seven, the fence is blowing; four nine thirty six, night sleep such as the trend; five nine forty five, poor “do not dance, don’t dance, there is a spring cold Forty-five; six95, flyfly housing; seven nine six three, cloth two shoulders; eight nine seventy-two, pig dog lying down; nine nineteen, poor man is crime. Just stretch, mosquitoes. “
Abstract 丨 肖舒妍