More detailed oil painting pigment characteristics and introduction
There are many types of color types of oil painting pigments, and high -grade oil painting pigments for artists usually have about 100 types. There are as many as 170 high -grade oil painting pigments of some foreign pigment brands;
The pigments of the same brand series often include similar colors with different chemical components, different colors and different degrees of transparency, which provides multiple choices for different technical needs. It is also named according to the composition of the pigment, the place of origin, or the name of the person, and the pigment manufacturers are named after some special pigments by their own company’s brand;
The same pigment often uses different names in different brands of products or different types of pigments, while the same name may have some differences in the hue due to different colors and formulas used;
In the face of a variety of pigment names, it is best to buy those pigments that indicate ingredients or pigment indexes and numbers to master their exact ingredients and performance. In addition to caring for brand and price when buying pigments, they must also try to understand their ingredients and their ingredients and performance;
The labeling of the commercial oil painting pigments is printed on the label and text to illustrate its nature, specifications and uses.
For imported oil painting pigments, it is not only superstitious brand, but it depends on which level of it belongs to. Although some imported pigments are brands, they may be low in their product series, even just ordinary students. It should be identified first before buying according to needs;
Some foreign products are marked with English Tint or Hue after some valuable pigment names, which means that the pigment is low -priced and colorful color material, such as cadmium red Hue is not a real cadmium red, but instead of using it on behalf of it Other red colors;
Of course, when drawing oil painting creation or important habits, of course, you should choose better quality pigments as much as possible, especially when making permanent oil painting works, the quality of pigments is particularly important, but high -quality pigments are high. To ensure the quality, it can save some costs, such as the bottom color of the painting uses ordinary pigments, and use more high -quality high -quality pigments in the coverage layer. In ordinary pigments, select some stable and cheap pigments such as iron oxide red and iron yellow. Series pigments, etc., because these colors are not much different in different grades of pigment series, it will not significantly affect the color resistance and color of color;
Select part of the colorful but not vulnerable varieties such as cadmium red and cobalt purple in high -grade pigments. Buying inferior products, otherwise it will end up;
The chemical component of the lead white is alkaline -type carbonate, which has the characteristics of strong cover, fast drying, and firm conjunctival, and has a good performance in oily pigments;
Due to the toxicity of the lead and the darkened color of the color after encountering sulfide, there are only reservations in individual pigment series abroad. Homemade oil painting white and base paint;
When operating on its own, strict protection is needed to avoid lead poisoning. In addition, when painting with lead white pigments, avoid direct mixing with sulfur -containing pigments such as group green and cadmium red to avoid discoloration;
Zinc white components are zinc oxide, which is a slightly translucent and soft white. Although the color and covering power are not as good as titanium white and zinc white, their whiteness is better than lead white, but it lacks sufficient cover power;
Zinc white has the advantages of non -toxic and inhibit fungal growth, and can also prevent pigmentation of pigment coating. Therefore, it is often combined with titanium white to make zinc titanium white pigments;
However, if zinc white is used alone or mixed with other color pigments alone, it is easy to cause cracking of the color layer, it is best to avoid it;
The chemical composition of titanium white is titanium dioxide, which has a strong cover power and color force. Its whiteness is four times that of zinc and white, which is the most white, so it is the reputation of the white king;
The replacement of lead white because of its superiority has become the most important white pigment;
There are two types of titanium white, R -type and A type;
The R type is also called the golden red stone type. It has good performance and is not easy to turn yellow or powder. It can be used for outdoor painting;
Type A titanium white is sharp titanium type, which is characterized by good whiteness and slightly cold color, but the light resistance and wind resistance performance is slightly worse. It is suitable for indoor painting without being painted outdoors;
There is also a white titanium white oil painting pigment in some foreign painting pigments, called unparalleled titanium white, and the color is milky white close to beige;
Zinc titanium white
Zinc titanium white is a mixed color of titanium white and zinc white, which not only maintains the whiteness, fastness and coverage strength of titanium white, but also the advantages of zinc white to prevent powder and mold. The ideal painting is white;
Some rubber brands abroad are called Yonggu Bai;
Zinc titanium white can be used for oil painting and various properties of painting paint;
Zinc 钡 钡 钡
Zinc cymbal white is a mixture of zinc sulfide and sulfate, commonly known as Lide powder;
Its whiteness and covering power are slightly better than zinc -white, and it is also used as a canvas bottom paint for oil painting;
The main weakness of zinc white is that it is easy to become dark after encountering ultraviolet rays. It needs to be placed in the dark to recover, so it is generally not suitable for white pigments, but it can be used as a base paint;
The chemical composition of chromium yellow is lead chromate, so it is also called lead chromium yellow, which has the characteristics of bright colors, covering power and strong color power;
Its hue includes from cold lemon yellow to light yellow, medium yellow, deep yellow and extremely warm orange;
However, the chromicosate components contained in chromium yellow are relatively toxic, and it will be obviously black when encountering hydrogen sulfide, such as group green, zinc cymbal white, etc., and it becomes orange -red when encountering alkaline substances;
The main components of cadmium yellow are cadmium sulfide or cadmium sulfide and zinc sulfide;
Cadmium yellow color is bright and saturated, with good covering power, color and light resistance. It belongs to high -grade pigments and has various standard yellow colors. It is more stable than chromium yellow, but cadmium yellow should not be with lead, iron, copper and salt containing lead, iron, copper and salt Pigs such as lead white, iron oxide pigment, 酞 酞 pigment or peacock blue, etc., otherwise the color that is easy to turn black or turquoise;
Cadmium yellow also has a certain toxicity, you should pay attention to the prevention;
Iron yellow is also called iron oxide yellow, also known as Mashuang. It is divided into natural iron oxide and synthetic iron oxide. It is the most stable yellow pigment with the most stable performance. It is one of the best pigments in yellow pigments;
Iron paint pigments have soil yellow, golden soil, raw, and transparent iron yellow in oil painting pigments.
Puppet nitrogen yellow
Puppet nitrogen yellow refers to its chemical structure containing the organic pigments of nitrogen -based. Most of them are bright in color, strong color and light resistance, and a wide range of chromatography;
Yellow porn nitrogen pigments also have more yellow colors, such as pale yellow, medium yellow and orange, etc.;
The yellow oil painting pigments of Puppet nitrogen also have some aliases such as Yonggu Huang and Knitai. The Hansha yellow abroad is also one of the other nitrogen yellow pigments;
In addition to the mix of slight fading after incorporating more white pigments, it can be mixed with various other color pigments;
Naoli yellow in oil painting pigments is also translated as Nappu Yellow or Naples yellow, which takes lead and 锑 as the main ingredient, so it is also called 锑 yellow;
Due to lead, its traditional ingredients have changed, and the yellow pornography in modern slopes is usually mixed with yellow, red and white;
Among the oil painting pigments abroad, there are different types of shades and hue in the slopes, and different brands also have a certain color difference;
Indian yellow is a deeper and full yellow color. It was originally one of the traditional pigments from animals;
This kind of yellow paint from cow urine has exported a lot from India and Bangladesh to Europe and welcomed in history;
Indian yellow was banned from production in 1908. The pigments named after Indian yellow are replaced with various other yellow pigments, and their light resistance yuan is much better than natural Indian yellow that is easy to fade than fading;
Traditional Qian Suhong is extracted from the root of Qiancao. After the decomposition of Qian Su can be made into dark red transparent pigments and red color pigment, which is the most popular transparent red in Westerners;
The color effect of Qian Suhong and white is bright, similar to rose peach red fluorescent colors;
Although natural Qian Suhong is transparent and bright and strong, it is not very durable, especially the color -cherishing pigments such as rose red and purple red made of rose red, purple red, etc. It is easy to fade;
After the invention of Qian Su in 1868, Natural Qian Suhong gradually replaced it, and the durability of its color was better than natural Qian Su;
The strength of the color film of Qian Su red pigment is weak, and it is easy to produce cracking by using it alone;
Iron oxide red
Iron Red usually becomes iron oxide red. It is the most stable and durable performance in red pigments. Its color is saturated and has good light resistance and coverage. It will not change color for a long time;
Modern iron oxide pigments are basically artificial synthetic pigments;
The red iron oxide red has soil red, transparent iron red, iron oxide red, and vermiculite made of iron oxide. Among some domestic and foreign brands, iron oxide red is called a variety of different names. There are Mashong, Venice Red, British Red, and Indian Red, but iron pigments are likely to cause color changes when encountering sulfide. Therefore, it is best to avoid directly mixing with pigment -containing pigments, such as cadmium pigments and group greens;
The main ingredients of cadmium red are cadmium sulfide and cadmium cadmium. Its color saturation is pure and pure, and it is one of the best red pigments with the best cover force, color and light resistance;
Cadmium red has a variety of standard hue with orange red, chocolate, red and dark red, and is generally used for advanced pigments;
Because the price of cadmium red material is more expensive, some foreign students often indicate the marking of Hue on the cadmium red pigments, which means that the cadmium reds such as puppet nitrogen red instead of real cadmium red;
Cadmium red should be more cautious when mixed with pigments containing lead, iron and copper to prevent the phenomenon of possible black change;
Red picnia pigment is a large category of red organic pigments. The color is bright and full, and the hue varieties are complete.
The light resistance and coverage of nitrogen red pigments are better. In addition to the fading phenomenon of fading after incorporating more white pigments, it can be mixed with various other pigments;
The colors of Nitrogen red pigments include Losar red, tolilline red, silver Zhu R, etc., but most of the commercial oil painting pigments are often only named Dahong, Zhu Hong, etc. Or the alias of selenium resistance;
The meat color in oil painting pigments is accustomed to the redness of red in Western color classification. It is a mixed pigment made of red, yellow, and white, which is mostly used for painting human skin tone;
Some oil painting pigments series have several kinds of meat color different from shades, cold and warm, so that they can choose according to need;
However, the meat color of ordinary oil paint pigments is mixed with white and puppet nitrogen -like red yellow pigments, which can easily cause severe fading without suitable use. Therefore, it is best to understand its specific ingredients or light resistance levels when buying meat colors;
In addition, the skin color of the Chinese people is generally yellow, and the flesh color in the imported pigments is not necessarily suitable. This should also be paid attention to;
Experienced painters make meat color without using ready -made pigments;
Pyraizine ketone red
Taking pyrine as the original red pigment variety is a multi -ring pigment product in organic pigments. The hue has purple red and red, etc., for high -grade oil painting pigments;
Pyreidone has strong red color and good light resistance, which can avoid the disadvantages of traditional dark red, purple -red easily penetrating color and fading, but the relative price is more expensive;
The ingredients of cobalt purple are cobalt phosphate or cobalt, which is a purple inorganic pigment with medium and lightness;
Cobalt purple light resistance is good, and can be reconciled with various pigments. It is a relatively stable variety in purple. It is not expensive, usually only used in high -grade oil painting pigments;
Cobalt is harmful to the human body, and it should be avoided to avoid direct contact;
The ingredients of manganese clearance are manganese dioxide. Some pigment brands are called mineral purple, which is also called Yonggu Purple;
Manganese purple has good light resistance, soft and purple color, and the performance is relatively stable;
The color and coverage of manganese purple purple purple purple can be used in pigments as transparent purple;
Manganese Creek is dry and faster in oil painting pigments, because metal manganese itself is an drying agent;
Mas purple is the iron oxide purple. The ingredients are synthetic iron oxide, and the performance is very stable. It has a very good light resistance and color of the color film;
The color of Mas purple is very different in the pigments of different brands. From the purple dark purple to the lighter red purple, there are also Mas purple that is mixed with red iron oxide and blue. The color power is relatively weak, and Mas purple can be used when the purple brown that needs more calmly;
The purple pigments made of group green are more common in some foreign pigment brands.
Qunqingzi is one of the artificial synthetic group green pigments. The main components are kaolin, sodium sulfate and sulfate, etc., which are burned by high temperature.
Qunqingzi has better light resistance, bright and transparent color, and its color is a more positive purple to the blue purple, which is suitable for the transparent covering technique of oil painting;
Many purple pigments use non -durable purple dye color croissance as color materials. Most of them have strong color and penetration, but the light resistance is surprisingly poor. If white is diluted, it will fade more seriously, but these purple colors are low in price, so they are used in ordinary oil painting pigments, such as violet, green lotus, and purple. Other colors are difficult to cover, so it should not be used in important oil painting creation, otherwise it will bring devastating consequences to the picture, but if it is indicated that the purple pigment with the name or the ingredients is tolerant of the green lotus color can be used, it can be used. It
Pyraine ketone purple
Pyraizine ketone purple is a purple synthetic organic pigment, also known as 酞 Qingzi.
The hue is a relatively transparent red purple, with excellent light resistance and firmness. Even after a large amount of mixed white, it can still maintain good light resistance. It is a purple pigment suitable for oil painting creation;
The complete name of the purple purple is the nachalodiazine purple, and the alias is the purple dioxide;
Capture purple is a new type of synthetic multi -ring organic pigment. The performance of heat resistance, light resistance and osmosis resistance is very good;
The hue tends to the blue purple, which is transparent, and its color is particularly strong. It is a better type of purple pigment;
Because the raw materials are more expensive, it is usually used in high -level artists in oil -painting pigment series;
In short, the use of purple should be particularly cautious, especially when creating permanent works or placing works in a public environment with strong light;
Pu Blue is called Prussian blue, also known as iron blue or copper blue. The ingredients are ferrous cyanide. It is a synthetic pigment invented in Germany in the 17th century;
Pu Blue’s color is very strong, the color is transparent and cold, and the light resistance is also very good. It is a very important blue painting pigment. It can mix various greens with yellow. When alkaline substances, their colors will decompose and fade into brown. Although it has gradually replaced Pu Blue to the main blue since the blue blue is invented, Pu Blue is still commonly used in dark oil painting pigments. one;
Qunqing is divided into two types: natural and synthetic group greens. The former was crushed with natural lapishae ore.
The advantage of Qunqing is that the color is fresh and transparent, and the light resistance is strong. It cannot be replaced by other blue, especially suitable for transparent techniques;
However, Qunqing has the shortcomings of acidic substances. On the surface for a long time, it is easy to produce white powder, which is the so -called Qunqing disease, but it can be removed by a small amount of kerosene oil;
Using Qunqing should also pay attention to avoid direct mixing with the pigment containing, copper and iron.
The inferior group of green pigments appear rough and uneven when applying it. When thick coating, it is easy to draw or stick, and the color is dark and loses saturation;
The main ingredient of cobalt blue is aluminum acid cobalt. Although the color and coverage are not very strong, due to the moderate lightness, the color is bright, both acid -resistant, alkaline resistance, and good at resistance. Mixing the paint is a must -have blue pigment;
Cobalt is precious metal, so the price of cobalt blue and other cobalt -containing components is relatively expensive;
The cobalt blue pigments in some brands are mixed with synthetic group green and white to replace the real cobalt blue;
酞 酞 酞
The blue blue is a high -quality organic pigment. It is a compound of copper cymbal green. It is the best performance in blue pigments.
佳 Qinglan has excellent light resistance, and can resist acid -alkali and high temperature, and is not afraid of other chemicals;
Due to the above -mentioned excellent performance of Qingqing Blue, it has gradually replaced Pu Blue and becomes the main dark blue pigment. It can also be used as a variety of green or white or light blue as Pu Blue.
The ingredients of the sky blue paint are tin acid cobalt, which is a green phase blue, light and opaque, with certain coverage, good light resistance, but the color force is average;
Tiansan is a traditional blue pigment. The sky blue pigments in some oil painting pigments are replaced by white and blue blue blue;
There are also some blue pigments produced in the traditional blue -colored dye, such as lake blue, peacock blue, etc., although they are bright and strong, but most of them have poor light resistance and have strong penetration. No Suitable for important creations;
Modern high -grade blue color pigment paint uses a new type of sun -resistant blue color croce, which improves light resistance and can be used for oil painting pigments;
Chromium green is divided into three types: lead chromium green, chromium oxide green and water -mounted chromium dioxide green. However, because the stability of the lead chromium is not good and contains lead poison, it has gradually been eliminated;
The chromium oxide green ingredients are triglyxide dioxide, and the performance is relatively stable and non -toxic. Although the color and color are slightly weaker, the color is suitable for the green color of the forest and plants, which can be used as an olive green.
The water -oxidized chromium green is also known as chromium oxide and green. The ingredients are trigly oxide and diets containing crystal water, which is much brilliant than ordinary chromium dioxide green.
Hydraulic chromium dioxide green has a good light -resistant column and non -toxic characteristics. It is also used to mix with yellow mixes;
Traditional cobalt green is composed of cobalt oxide and zinc oxide. It is a blue translucent green pigment with weak coverage and average color strength;
Modern cobalt green adopts a combination of cobalt oxide and chromium oxide or titanium dioxide. It is much stronger than traditional cobalt green in terms of optical resistance, but the color and coverage are the same;
酞 酞 酞
The ingredients of the green green are similar to the blue blue and blue, mainly copper green green, which is a non -toxic organic pigment. Its light resistance and color force are also very excellent. It is an important dark green pigment;
The green green is divided into two types of blue and yellowish. The transparency is better. It can replace the green and dark chromium green for transparent cover;
Emerald green is also called gem green or emerald, colorful and transparent;
The traditional emerald green component is copper arsenic, which is toxic, and is unstable to acid and alkali. After encountering pigments containing sulfur -containing substances, it turns black and darkened. It has been eliminated now;
Modern emerald green is replaced by hydrophilic oxide or green green. The name and ingredients are similar due to the brand. The hue is found from pink green to dark green;
Cadmium green is a composite green that is mixed with cadmium yellow and green green green. Because cadmium yellow and green blue are excellent pigments, the light resistance and color of cadmium green are also very good.
Olive green is a traditional green pigment with darker colors and yellow brown;
Olive green used to be composed of chromium green. Most of the olive green in modern oil painting pigments was mixed by blue and yellow. The ingredients and hue were different;
Olive green color is stable and calm, mostly used for landscape painting;
The green tree juice in oil painting pigments used to use the green from the tail -tailed plants. The color was yellowish and darker, because it was easy to fade and unpopular. In today’s Western oil painting pigment series Its hue and traditional name;
Earth green was originally a natural green clay, with colorfulness and good transparency, but poor color and covering power;
Most of the soil green pigments of modern oil paint are made of natural green soil, and made of green pigments such as chromium oxide or green green.
Iron oxide brown
Iron -oxide brown is referred to as iron brown for short, and the composition is natural iron oxide or artificially synthesized iron -oxide brown pigment. It is made with iron oxide and brown pigments such as vermiculite, raw, raw brown, and cooked brown. Strong, it is widely used in oil paintings. There are also iron -oxide brown and transparent iron -brown pigments named after iron oxide. The mixing of iron -oxide brown pigments and sulfur -containing pigments will produce color changes. You should pay attention to avoid it;
Traditional vermiculite is processed from ore rich in iron, and the ingredients are also iron oxide, but the color used in the West is made of natural clay with different colors. According to the different color of the raw materials, it is divided into loess, green soil, brown soil, etc. Those who are not burned are called raw, such as raw 煅 and brown brown, and they are called cooked after burning, such as cooked brown, cooked 赭, etc., or they are called rich iron 煅 loess and burn burning loess. Most of them are made of synthetic iron oxide;
Traditional brown paint is made of natural brown soil or less bone black. Modern brown brown is a brown and black mixing color based on synthetic iron oxide, and the performance is very stable;
The brown color is cold and black, translucent, and excellent light resistance. It can be compatible with cold and cold colors, so it is very suitable for oil painting.
The raw brown hue of each brand is also very different. It is deep and full of color and is not too dark. Some are brown and light.
Cooked brown is processed from natural brown soil. It is also called 煅赭 熟. The color tone is warm and lighter than brown.
Cooked brown is also used in painting, especially when the underlying color draft of oil painting characters, it is easy to connect with the color of the dark skin;
Foreign brown paint is also called dark brown, light brown or green brown according to the different shades of color;
Mas brown is a brown synthetic pigment with synthetic iron oxide as the basic material. It has good light resistance and covering power. It is slightly purple with other brown, similar to chocolate -like colors;
Fan-Daike brown is a traditional brown pigment. It is named after the name of the 17th-century painter Fan Daike. It was originally a natural soil pigment with rotten implants. Fan-Daike Brown, which is mixed with pigments, especially with iron oxide brown and other synthetic pigments. There should not be too much problems;
The alias of the asphalt is also called Mumini Brown. This kind of pigment made of Mummy’s ashes is actually the asphalt used by the Egyptian grave for mummy anticorrosive. By decomposing in linolen oil, it is made into brown paint. Transparent;
The asphalt color was abused because of the warmth and softness suitable for classical paintings. Later, it was used to discover a large number of works that caused the collapse of the pigment layer to be eliminated. Later generations called it the plague of the 19th century painting;
Modern foreign paint still is still named after asphalt -colored brown paint replacement with other synthetic brown pigments;
Coal black is charcoal black. It is made of ash after burning with pine branches, coal or oil. The traditional oil painting pigments are also carbon black.
The coal black is characterized by darkness, strong covering power, and more moderate hue and warmth. The disadvantage is that the drying speed of drying in the oily media is more obvious when it is used alone. Therefore Other pigments are mixed up better;
Iron and black is the iron oxide black, also known as Mas black, and the ingredients are four oxidation three iron;
The iron and black performance are stable, have a strong cover power, and the light resistance is also very good;
The iron and black colors are blue, and the painting pigments of other colors can be adjusted with each other. However, because the black pigments of iron oxide are strong, they should pay attention to controlling the amount when mixed with other pigments to avoid being unable to clean up;
Ivory black is also called bone black, which is a soft, translucent and warm black, stable performance, and good light resistance;
Most ivory black is fired by other animal bones, and its components are carbon, calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate;
Ivory black is suitable for semi -transparent cover dyeing, and you can also mix with other colors of various gray or brown;
Ivory has low dark density, light quality, high oil content, very slow drying speed, easy to crack when thin coating;
Some of the black pigments are made up of black and blue or brown pigments, such as blue, black, cold black and warm black, in order to make a certain color tendency to meet the requirements of color and warm and warm;
After adding other colors, the stability and drying speed of simple black are also improved. The black names of various oil -painting color brands are different, and the ingredients are not the same.