Centennial Archeology


He Shuangquan

The suspension spring is a spring water that is made up of the groundwater in the Gobi desert. It is the only larger water source on the avenue of 120 kilometers. Before the Xuanquan site in the Han Dynasty was not discovered, Xuanquan was first seen in the literature records of the Tang Dynasty.

In 1987, the Gansu Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeological Research Institute was investigated three times, and a complete mailing simplified simplified Simpling Simpage of Lishu large characters written with “Xuanquan Putting Pavilion” was found in the silt. be found.

“After excavation, we opened the door that had been closed for more than 2,000 years, and saw the unsteady house, the collapsed house, the falling wall skin, the tattered windows, the residual simple waste paper … Everything seemed to seem to be That defeat. “He Shuangquan, an archeologist who participated in the excavation of the site at the time, wrote in the text,” What unit is it? How did the people live here? breath……”

Xuanquan Site in the Han Dynasty


Gansu is the narrowest and longest province in the country. It is more than 1,800 kilometers long and east is connected to Shaanxi and Xinjiang in the west. It is a must for the ancient and modern Silk Road. There are multiple channels in the east, and a road is formed after gathered in the Hexi region, so it becomes a golden area of ​​the Silk Road. In this area, more than 2,000 years, there have been many characters crossing and various events have occurred. The Eastern Han Dynasty should be “Customs” and said: “The Han family is in the Qin, and the ethics of ten miles, the pavilion, and the stay. Also. “” Houhan Book · Western Regions Biography “said:” Litun field is in the field of cream, and the post is placed on the road of the key. Next. Later, Gan Mo was in peace and resting. He faced the Western Sea with the Qin of the Western Sea, and rejected more than 40,000 miles of Yumen and Yangguan. These records depict the prosperity of the Silk Road. The time to move, the victory at the time was unknown. During the mystery, the discovery of the Suspension Site revealed the mysterious veil, confirmed the existence of Silk Road, showed a brilliant history, and it was necessary to admire it.

Legend of Xuanquan

The suspension spring is a spring water that is gathered in the groundwater in the Gobi desert. It is the only larger water source on the avenue of 120 kilometers. It is a life spring left by nature. I do n’t know how many years have existed here. But people use it to be very late.

Suspension in the summer of 2006

Before the Xuanquan site in the Han Dynasty was not discovered, the data recorded in the literature were first seen. Only Li Jifu of the Tang Dynasty Li Jifu’s “Yuanhe County Map” and the Tang Dynasty documents discovered by the Mogao Cave Tibetan Cave. After the Tang Dynasty, the scriptures were not seen, and even the name of Xuanquan was gone. Judging from the records of the Tang Dynasty, a hanging spring in the Tang Dynasty not only existed, but also inherited the heritage of the Han Dynasty. Here are the local government Xuanquan Township and the Central Postal System Xuanquan to ensure the smooth flow of the Silk Road. “Yuanhe County Tuzhi” Volume 40 records: “Longyou Road, Shazhou Dunhuang County, Xuanquan water, in the east of the county, the belly of Longle Mountain, Han Hui Guangli, and the scholars are thirsty. Luck, Yingdi Sword and Slang Mountain, flying spring, that is, this is also. Water is spiritual, the car and horses are as big as it is, and it will be less. ” : “The suspended spring water, in the east of the state, is in the belly of the stone cliff, and the springs are out of fine flow. One mile is absolutely absent. “Liang Lu · Fatant” cloud: General Li Guangli of the Han Dynasty division Li Guangli Xiyang, returning to this mountain, soldiers are thirsty, Guangnai expands the mountains, and vowed to the sky with the sorrow of the sky, poured out the sword with the sword, and the flying spring came out. . Many people are sufficient, and people are not profitable. The cliffs are out of the side, so it is said to be suspended. ” Ask the mountains in the north of Shanbei. “” Dunhuang Record “(SI 5448) said:” 贰 师 泉 泉, go to the east of Shazhou City for three times, Li Guangli is thirsty in Han Dynasty, and I wish the mountain god with Jianzha Mountain. Under the bottom of the west dozens of miles of yellow grass. After that, there are thirsty, and the sideways of the water spring end. The water is under the fierce, so far. The temple of the teacher is on the roadside and has been abolished for a long time. However, there are stones and horses, pedestrians praying for blessings, and entering the Gwangju boundary. ” “Yiheli Hand in Yingquan Township, Dunhuang County”.

Judging from the above information, the suspension of the Tang Dynasty was very lively. It not only gave Quanshui to the power of God, but also used it to set up a hometown to build a post road to become a popular sacred place. And it is always linked to the Western Han general Li Guangli. So where is this place? Is the Tang Dynasty site still? Did Li Guangli come here? What are the systems in the Han Dynasty?

Visit the Hanging Spring Finding Han Tang objects

The hanging spring is the suspension spring called the Tang Dynasty, also known as the Shi Shiquan. It is easy to name because of history. Later generations only know that there is a hanging spring, also known as hanging water. The meaning is the same. Located in the valley of 64 kilometers east of Dunhuang City, this mountain is the remaining pulse of the northern part of the Qilian Mountains. It is not connected to the main veins of the Qilian Mountains. There is a rising east -west mountain range in the middle of the desert. From the east of the cowin town in Guoyang County, the west of the Daquan River in the west, it is located at the junction of Shishan and Shashan. The west side of Shashan is the west, and the Shishan on the east is more than 100 kilometers. There are three names. The western section is called Sanwei Mountain, the middle section is called Flame Mountain, and the eastern section is called Cutama.


The flame mountains are tall and steep, and the dangers are upright, like a knife ax split shape. The hanging spring is at the northern end of the Flame Mountain. There are five spring eyes in the south, and there are five spring eyes. There are water flowing out all year round. Among them, the half -waist water flow of the mountains on the east side is the largest. From top to bottom, a small waterfall is formed. Lost, the vegetation is developed, the red willows and poplars are upright, reeds, and Rob Ma are everywhere, and birds often patronize. There is a sound of water from a distance, and there are water springs in the distance. The scenery is beautiful. It is amazing that this waterman is less water, more people are water, and no one is water. Become the god spring in the eyes of the locals. People often come here to play with hanging, and they are also a must -have water for horses, cattoes, and camels.

Supreme Scenery Sites around the site

In August 1987, the second major census of cultural relics nationwide was carried out. According to the Provincial Department of Cultural Affairs, the county launched an investigation. At that time, it was cooperating with the construction of the Dunhuang airport. Essence A week later, Rong Enqi and Han Yaocheng were new to a new site, but the times were difficult to determine. I asked where, they said they were hanging the spring. The next day, they went to the tractor of farmers for the first time. This time, they used the Beijing Jeep that they generally did not need. Can be left. Get out of the car and walk. I didn’t take a few steps and blocked the road. I found that I went the wrong way, hurriedly returned, looking for another way, and I was wrong. The third time was found, but it was more than 5 pm when it was found. The site is on the west side of the ditch, and it is not in the hanging water ravine. Due to the long -term wind erosion and flooding of the site, the surface of the site appears uneven and fragmented. The surface forms a hard shell due to the large alkali content. On the ground, there are sporadic gray pottery fragments. Essence The sky was getting dark and returned with the relics. Careful identification, the gray pottery has the characteristics of Han and Jin, suspected that it should be the site of Han and Jin dynasties.

I went again the next day. I set off in the morning in the morning. Because of the Tulu Road, Beijing Machine Pu 64 kilometers also ran for two hours. At 10 o’clock, I reached the site. Let’s go to the hanging spring first. There is no road in the ravine. The car cannot pass through. We had to walk on foot, and found the spring water along the riverbed for an hour. The face was cool and the scenery was beautiful, but there was no ancient ruins. Then cross the Xuanquan Valley, go to the south of the mountain valley, go out of the mountain mouth, showing the desert that cannot be seen in front of him. So the original road returned, and there was no water track all the way. Only the Beigukou had water springs. Just as the scenery mentioned earlier. For the first time, I appreciated the beauty of Xuanquan Valley and the sweetness of Xuanquan water. Li Lian had forgotten to return, and it was 2 pm when he went out to the site. On the way back, he went to the queue to go to the camel team who went to the hanging spring to drink water. Perhaps it was because of the fact that he was located in the uninhabited area. Go wrong. No one cares about the camel, and you can enjoy Ganquan by himself. We returned to the site to continue to watch, picked up more pottery, silk fabrics, and hairpinis, and picked up the cut -the -clothes slice retained from the wooden slips. From these relics, it can be concluded that it is undoubtedly a Han Dynasty site. We returned to the city with the joy of new discovery.

After another week, it was already in late August. The weather was extremely hot and the thief was not dead. He met for the third time. Departing in the morning, brought dry food, repeatedly checked on the site, and finally rushed on the edge of the west. A complete mail -seal simplified in the ditch was found, and the soil was wiped off, and the six neat losive characters were displayed in front of the eyes. It turned out to be the place where the Xunquan was in the Han Dynasty. I originally wanted to find the Tang Dynasty Xuanquanyi, and it was unexpected to find the Han Dynasty Xuanquan. Xuanquan was discovered like this. Pushing the history of Xuanquan to the Han Dynasty, it seems that the legend of the Tang Dynasty may have a certain basis. History is sometimes so inconsistent.

Gengwu to Renshen from three years of excavation

After the Xuanquan site was discovered in 1987, it was originally planned to be protected on the spot. Under the leadership, go to the site to investigate and discuss the protection plan. However, after the preservation of nearly three years in 1988 and 1989, it is worrying. One is that through the erosion of two heavy rain and the attack of sandstorms, some gray areas were revealed, and the light and light cultural relics were exposed. Second, the phenomenon of stealing has been found. Forced by the approval of the State Cultural Relics Bureau, from 1990 to 1992, three consecutive annual rescue excavations were carried out.


In October 1990, the archeological excavation site of the Xuanquan Site

He entered the construction site on October 2, 1990, and stopped at the end of January 1991. It was the first excavation. The Archaeological Institute sent me and me with Zhou Guangji, Tian Jian, Wang Hui, Chai Shengfang, Shui Tao, Wu Yan, Wei Wenbin, and Ma Jinsheng. There are no residents near the site, surrounded by bare Shishan and Mango Gobi, and have nowhere to camp. I had to rent a house on the Tiantujing Road Class of Guazhou County Highway Bureau on the Antun Highway 4 kilometers away. In the bedboard, rent the bedding in Guazhou County’s hospitality, borrow the stoves of migrant workers in Jingyuan Village, Mogao Town, Mo Gao Town, Dunhuang, and buy self -purchased coal and other daily necessities to build a simple living base. Due to the conditions limited, the six houses rented, 3 as us Dormitory and warehouses, three as migrant workers and stove rooms, had to eat together. There is no electricity here, no water, and no communication equipment. The lighting had to use candles. You can only rent a four -wheel tractor to transport the water with water. When it is important, go to the Guizhou County Post and Telecommunications Bureau 60 kilometers away. Daily meals are noodles, cabbage, and potatoes. The water is the most tense. It takes a maximum of two days for the water. In order to ensure that eating and drinking water, washing your face and rinsee can only be removed. It really entered the era of suspension in the suspension of the suspension more than 2,000 years ago.

The hanging spring of the severe winter is extremely cold. Before 10 am, there must be a strong wind after 4 pm, so the best working period is from 10 am to 4 pm. In view of this, we decided to set off at 9 am, walk 3 kilometers in the wind, arrive at the construction site at 10 o’clock, and return to walk again at 4 pm. Every day, this is the difficult environment and a simple life. Despite this, everyone’s enthusiasm continues. I didn’t think a heavy snow came to the door. On the first day of the start of the construction, the door was opened. The white mango of the Gobi field was golden, and the group was as golden under the sun. Since the site is located in the high ground, we come to the apex around the apex, and we are like Pangu. The sky is cool and the mood is comfortable. According to the division of labor, it is collectively sweeping the snow. After a while, it will open a black place on the white land. Start from the west to the west side to arrange 29 positions 5×5, and numbers. Then the division of labor was carried out. Shui Tao, Wu Yan, and Wei Wenbin were responsible for surveying and mapping. Zhou Guangji, Tian Jian, Wang Hui, Chai Shengfang and others were in charge of one party to start trying. This area is ash area, which is far from the construction site. Therefore, the strata accumulation is thick and complicated. After the thickness of the thickness of 5 cm is removed, it is 10 cm thick to disturb the soil. Cultural layers have been chaotic, and it is difficult to distinguish from soil quality and earth color. It must be judged in combination with objects. Therefore, the small layer first, then the then parallel method, can only be accurate. After two days of work, I have mastered the accumulation law and clarified the basic layering relationship. The special certificate is: 1. First of all, the thickness is uneven. 2. The same layer is not necessarily on the same plane. This is the result of forming a heap after the original accumulation. 3. Different from the inland layers of the explorer are different. 4. Each layer contains different things, and the number is different. Various substances are complaining, and Jianyan, silk fabrics, lacquer woodware, pottery, firewood, human and animal manure, and various bones coexist. 5. Chai rods, grass oranges, reeds, sand soil, and small gravel are overlapped. The soil and soil color are not obvious, and it cannot be used as a basis for the layer. 6. Each layer contains the talent of the year of the year of the year is the only ruler of the division of the formation.

After obtaining these experiences, the excavation work went smoothly. By the end of December, the excavation of 29 square meters was completed, obtaining more than 5,000 wooden slips and more than a thousand other cultural relics. The gain is very abundant. As the weather is getting colder, it is difficult to sustain. After a simple New Year’s Day on the construction site, some relics were returned and ended for the first excavation.

In May 1991, the weather was getting warmer, but the suspension spring was at the time of the wind. In addition, the house rented by the road last year could not renew the lease because their employees had to use it. The three comrades of Tian Jian, Chai Shengfang, and Takamori were sent to the construction site. While conducting infrastructure, they started the second excavation while cleaning up the relics of recovery. After more than a month of construction, a small simple courtyard was covered at the Hangquan Valley mouth, and a living base was established. Greatly improved the dilemma of last year. In order to strengthen the excavation power, the excavation team was adjusted, including Chai Shengfang, Yan Weiqing, Wu Yan, Zhang Junmin, Pu Chao, Ma Jianhua, Mao Ruilin, Li Yongning, etc. Re -de -exploration recipe again, cover all the gray areas and site areas, uniformly uniformly set up a limited elastic angle, and the partitions: the gray area is the 丨 area, the site area is the 丨 丨 丨 丨 area, and the north and east edges are four. , Five districts. The main task is to comprehensively clean up the construction sites and clean up the four -week house sites in the east, west, and north. The underworld sites are relatively scattered, and the relationship between the break in the morning and evening is very complicated. The late activity has a great impact on early relics. The upper part of the late relics is close to the surface. Due to the poor preservation of the interference part, the late appearance is stored after cleaning. Essence By discovering the building structure. At the same time, the comprehensive cleanup of the Western Gray Zone was completed. More than 7,000 wooden slips, more than 400 hemp paper, and more than 2,000 other cultural relics. New discovery of many wall questions. The excavation work continued until the end of the year, and the second excavation task was completed.

In October 1990, the archeological excavation site of the Xuanquan Site

In May 1992, it continued to start construction when he was warm. Basically, the original class was immediately offered. On the basis of reviewing the previous discovery data, all the exterior sites outside the Woodwood Wall and the Majuka site outside the Nanwu wall were exposed and cleaned up. The structure of these two regional sites is relatively simple, and there are fewer cultural relics, but the accumulation is very thick, especially the horses, and the accumulation is more than 1.2 meters. Ods and time -consuming. For half a year, cleaned up the original appearance, obtained complete information, and completed the third excavation. In order to protect the excavated ruins, I had to return to the sand to fill the sand and end all the excavations. Later, in the south and east and west sides of the site, the dam that had been built on the mountain body and the rushing gap for 50 years, which effectively prevented the scour of the flood.

Seven years of Guili to 卯 卯 卯 卯 卯

After the excavation in 1992, it entered indoor consolidation since 1993. The workload was large, and at that time, the main forces of various departments in the institutes had participated in the collaborative combat before completing the field excavation work. After entering the indoor finishing stage, due to different tasks and their professional directions in each department, most comrades who participated in the excavation were not involved in this arrangement, and the tasks were all in the Hanjian Research Office. At that time, there were many people in this room. It was the strongest time to study the strength of Han Jian, including me, as well as Chu Shibin, Xu Leyao, Xue Yingqun, Wu Yan, Ren Buyun, Zhang Bangyan, Li Yongliang, Zhang Junmin, Chai Shengfang, etc., but later The changes were very great. At the beginning and Xu, the two were transferred back to the provincial blog. Xue Shenjiajuju’s excavation report was written. Only Zhang Junmin and Chai Shengfang were left. Later, Zhang Defang transferred to the room. In addition, Zhang Jirong, Yan Xiulian, Du Wei, etc. were invited to support. Wang Yuanlin, Mao Ruilin, Dai Chunyang, etc. came to assist in from time to time, so that they began to comprehensively organize.

Han Jian unearthed from the site of Xuanquan

Two -step in two steps, first brief and then the utensils. There are more than 10,000 in Jian Jian, which are not word -free, and can be classified according to the material and size and unearthed unit. Another more than thousands of words are simple text, including complete and residual. Because the unearthed strata and the preservation status are different, the upper layers are very dry, and the lower layers have a certain humidity, but the simplifiedness is covered with dirt, and the pure soil is easy to remove. There are alkali soil and sand, which is not easy to remove, and accidentally even the handwriting is also taken away, so the first step is to carefully remove the dirt and make the handwriting appear. The second step is to break the simplification, there is a complete simplification in the same layer, and there are also discarded after breaking. Step 3 Classified, sorting the same simplification of the same kind. The fourth step is to sort the times according to the Jiali Nian Jian and characteristics. The fifth step is to numbers one by one by the detective and write the number on the back or side without words. Step 6 Make a card, draw the shape for each simple root, then draw the shape, then indicate the category, material, size, font, number of words, the nature of the age, the nature of the document, the preservation status, characteristics, etc. Comprehensive record. The seventh step is to make an interpretation according to the original brief. Before the interpretation, determine the style, such as the determination of text, the consequences of the simplified body, and the determination of various symbols, etc., and finally make preliminary interpretation drafts, and finally discuss the revision of the difficult words. After repeated modifications, the final draft. This process lasted four years.


After Jian Jian sorted out for a period of time, it was to turn into other utensils, which was also carried out step by step. The first step was cleaned, the second step was categorized by the unearthed unit, the third step was to repair some utensils, the fourth step is to make the utensil card, the fourth step Step 5 Establish a statistical data table, step the sixth step selection of typical specimens, seventh parts of the artifact map, step eighth to take pictures, and step 9 determine the excavation report topic. This consolidation costs two years, and after basically the completion of the 2000s, published a briefing and other information on the fifth issue of the Cultural Relics Magazine. Since 2001, the writing of the excavation report has been published.

Cognitive suspension

By organizing all the information, we have a basic understanding of the units located on the Gobi on the desert. At the same time, we can also see the realization of the real -strategic goals of the Western Han Dynasty, control the Western Regions, and operate the Silk Road from the Western Han Dynasty. The role of the process and the hanging spring.

1. Endless use of site selection

The site is selected on the fan -shaped high platform in front of the mountain, facing the Flame Mountain, facing the Xishawo, and has a sense of standing. On both sides of the east and west, the ravine is avoided, and the drainage is cleverly drained to avoid the attack of the flood. Entering the valley on the east side of the hanging spring water, there is a convenient water. Sitting west to the east, the high wall courtyard has slowed the invasion of the cold current and the heat of the northwest. The east and west on the north side extend smoothly. Between the square inch, the location was exhausted, reflecting the good intentions of the Kanyu family in the Han Dynasty.

2. Strict structure in architecture layout

Hangquan hand -painted sketch

The site covers an area of ​​more than 25,000 square meters. The main building is composed of three parts: the cubic courtyard of the dock courtyard, which is 50 meters of square yard. The site only stores the lower part. According to the information recorded by the Han Jian, it is speculated that the original high should be above 8 meters. There are corner buildings in the four corners, the foundation of the northeast and southwest corners, and the two corners of the southeast and northwest are due to the wind and rain and mountain floods. There are houses in the courtyard, and there are bathrooms in the dock walls, or single rooms, or suite, and suite. These houses have a complicated maintenance relationship. There are early rooms under the late houses. Clean up and save advanced houses during the excavation. The lower floor has not moved. Clean 27 late houses in the courtyard. According to the unearthed information on the unearthed, a row of houses in the western wall is a special guest house, which is Jian Wen’s biography. Two rows of houses in the north wall are for office areas and civil servants. The east and south walls are kitchen and public toilets. The center of the dock is open space and should be a public activity area. The horse is built outside the Nanwu wall, 45 meters long and 8 meters wide. The stools and gray soil with thick accumulation. There are many houses on both sides of the north and south of the east gate, seemingly for guards. That is, the common “very house” in Han Jian. From the information provided by the Hanjian year, these buildings have been continuously used for 205 years (the Western Han Dynasty Wudi Expedition and the first nine years before the first year to 113 AD in the Eastern Emperor An Emperor’s Emperor AD).

3. Close 2,000 years to restart the dock gate

Hangquan setting site unearthed mud wall questions

After excavation, we opened the door that has been closed for more than 2,000 years, and we saw the unsteady house, the collapsed house, the falling wall skin, the broken windows, the residual slim waste paper … What unit is it? How do people live here? We discarded a new atmosphere from the garbage dump outside the courtyard. The west wall of the courtyard is a area specially used to land waste, archeology is called gray area. Many “babies” were found here, and these babies fully showed their work and living conditions. For example, a large number of chickens, sheep, horses, and beef bones show that they are eating meat, but they also find barley, millet, and mi granules, which prove that the staple food is grain crops, and peach, apricot, and Li Nu also indicate that there are fruits and vegetables. A large amount of lacquer wooden tableware such as chopsticks, spoons, daggers, ear cups, etc., proves that dining is very particular, and there are drinks. Eat meat, rice, and vegetables, drink wine. Life is quite happy. A large number of various silk fabrics, leather, and hairpinwear disabled, it seems that there is no shortage of clothes and less. The huge hemp shoes and petite leather shoes indicate that there were 28 -yards of big men and children with 12 yards here. With bad silk powder and wooden cakes engraved with the word “loyalty” on both sides. Have a love story here? The existence of a large amount of hemp paper is that the era of paper replacement of wooden slips has arrived? Many iron agricultural tools, is it still hired migrant workers with fields here? Copper arrows also prove that there is a garrison here? Copper five baht money also shows that the rich money is not finished into the trash? Waiting for various broken things to confirm with Jian Yan’s documents, Living Dragon showed the social scene at that time.

Xuanquan Site Lacquer Ear Cup

Xuanquan Site Xuanquan

4. Xuanquan Resetting Organization and Personnel Preparation

According to the book of Jian Ji, the furnishings include four major institutions, kitchen, 厩, and Chuanhe, which are set up as leaders and secretaries such as the heads of the heads, the husband, the officials, and the scholars, and the Shu Zuo. The chef supervisor drinks, and the husband is responsible.啬 啬 厩 厩 厩 厩 厩 厩 厩 is responsible. The director of Chuan She received the accommodation arrangement and also set up a husband. Husband, the name of the official, the small official who enjoys the treatment of the lunar month. Resident officials such as Jianwen Zai: · March official book: 82 people below, their twenty -two people are long, rank of four hundred stones. Shouyang Guan, one person,, and rank of two hundred stones. See.丨 丨 90dx 1 0215 (3): 29. There are more than 80 officials, in addition to various laborers, there are not a few. For example, the soldiers of the siege: Xuanquan set the god of the second year, the first month of the first month, the name of the first month 丨 90dx 丅 0309 (3): 54. Criminals engaged in heavy physical labor: Xuanquan set up the first year of Yangshuo to see apprentices 丨 丨 90dxt0215 (2): 1. There are also soldiers who work daily: Ding Hai, died of 80 people, four of them raised, one person, and seventy -five people.丨 丨 90dxt0215 (4): 47. (Note: Raise, chef who cooks, fixes, fixed labor every day.)


From these records, it can be seen that residents are very complicated, and it is estimated that residents can reach more than 200 people.

5. Major assets

As a station, its responsibilities are to pass mail and reception personnel, so the main assets are horses and vehicles. Such as Jane:

There are 100 two people below the right, a hundred two horses, a fight for five liters. Use millet fifteen stones and three buckets. The school was used to use one stone and three fighting.丨 90dxt0214 (1): 48.

One horse, ah, multiplied, left, left, two noses, white back, nine years old, five -foot -eight inches tall. In the middle, the name is Jia fingers, pillars, driving. V92dxt1610 (2): 16.

There is a horse, red, bead, left plagiarism, eight years of teeth, five -foot -eight inches tall, driving, called iron pillar. V92dx 1 1610 (2): 17.

In the second year of the beginning of the year, Wu Zi Gengyin, the suspended spring, dared to say that the famous family members were transmitted, dare to speak. V92dxt1610 (2): 20.

In the second year of Yangshuo, Ren Shenshuo Guiwei, the suspension of the husband and husband dared to speak, and moved to the pass of the car and the car book, dare to speak.丨 90dxt0208 (2): 1.

The above brief text is the registration ledger for the special horse and the car. Horse has a unified number, a fixed name, and indicates that height, age, hair color, use, etc. The vehicle also has a unified number. A monthly report was formed to report the situation and preservation of the superiors, and a strict management system was formed.

6. Responsibility and task

According to Jianwen, responsibilities and tasks can be divided into two categories: email transmission and reception personnel:

(1) Mail transmission

The second book on the book: one of the chiefs and one of the princess Wusun. When Ganlu was in February in February of the second year, he was ride by Pingwang’s translation.丨 丨 90dx 1 0113 (3): 65

A book of the emperor’s scripture was given to the eunuch of Dunhuang. In November of the first year of Yuan Ping, a few and a half years in Gui Chou, the biography of Xuanquanyi, was rides Guangzong by Wannianyi. V92dxt1612 (4): 11

East of the east, a military book, soap and weft, finish. Looking at the four gates of Shangwang Road. In the early two years of the founding of the country in September, Wannian Tingyi rode Zhang Tongtong Changyang Changyang.丨 丨 90dxt0115 (1): 59

Out: Eight Books in the East, Banji Si, Yang Yan San. Four princes. A left Feng Ye, a right -handed man, and one of the east princes of the river. A Jiuquan Mansion, a long seal of Dunhuang. The second seal of the long seal of the water seal in the eastern water, a private seal of Yang Jian, Ming’an. Banji Si, the prince of the eunuch, Yi Yi Yihe Captain, Yiyi Yizhou, Yizhen Guang School, Yizhenwu Lanqiu. One board is the long seal of Dunhuang, and the capital is Zhang Qing. One Yang Ying Guo Zun’s seal is wide. Yang Yan, Longle Long Seal, and Du Du Shi Zhang Qing. When Dinghai was in September, Linquan banned Shi Mi. V92dxt1611 (3): 308

(2) Reception staff

In the reception of personnel, there are also differences in inside and outside, namely domestic civil servants and foreign messenger.

Inner guest:

In November of the four years of the Di Jue, the prime minister Li Zun was sent to the Sudo for six years. Essence Jiuquan County Yin Yin

The died sent to Hedong, Nanyang, Xichuan, East County, Wei County, Huaiyang State, and the death of death and dying, for a rumor. The master of the royal history is called Gao Ling, and he is driving in the second time.丨 90dxt0309 (3): 237

In the four years of Jianping, Renzi, a doctor of the royal history, was the Constitution of the Emperor Shi. Dr. Yu Shi Yan (year) went to Changan in Chengshu, and he was driving the second time, as a biological house, such as the law. Bingxi in June.丨 90dxt0112 (2): 18

In the second year of the beginning of the year, Wuzi Shuo Yi, the long -lasting life of the Chi Chi, sent a semapper to Supu, to send the disciples Dunhuang County, take the car and take a horse, and be a horse. Such as law. / 令, order


Shi Lin, Zuo Guang. In April, it was over the west.丨 90dxt0210 (1): 63

In August of the first year of He Ping, Wuchen Shuo Renwu, Dunhuang Taishou Xian and Xunxin said that he had passed the county and Dao: send Guang to Si Kong’s husband Yin Meng, collect the flow of people in the East China Sea and Taishan. August Gengyin passed, east.丨 丨 90dxt0315 (3): 36

Foreign guest:

The six liters of the millet, the food guard belongs to Gao Bo Wu Wu Sun Xiaokun Mi to eat again, east.丨 90dx 1 0110 (2): 33

In November of the five years of Jianping, Gengshen, sent to the history of Zhao Ping, sent from the dismissed from the Dawan, Hou, and the dedication, 丨 丨 90dx 丅 0114 (4): 57

In June of the first year of Huanglong, Ren Shen, the minister Hong, the servant of the servant, the sergeant, and the row of the officials, the official Gan Gan to send the guests of the Kangju country, scoured the vice of the vice, and for a biography of the puppet. Not … 丨 丨 90dxt0114 (4): 277


Send the essence of 4070 people.丨 丨 90dxt0115 (1): 114

In October of Ganlu in October, the prime minister belongs to Wang Peng, Princess and General, and nobles, from passing the car, the trading department of the second seal. Dr. Yu Shi has been in Xianyang for thousands of years, and he is driving in the second time. V92dxt1412 (3): 100

The food defensive belong to Meng Fun, who was sent to the vice meal of the good king Lu Hang, etc.丨 90dxt0116 (2): 15

Guest: Da Yue, Dawan, Shule, Yu Yan, Sha Che, Qu La, Jing Jue, Eighteen of the King of Kings, and the nobleman … 丨 90dxt0309 (3): 97

Han Jian unearthed from the site of Xuanquan

There are each, the messenger Wang Jun, will be under the king of the king, and the Bingbing Bingfa will be used in May.丨 90dxt0309 (3): 134


From the above recording materials, it can be seen that the suspension spring is responsible and the task is heavy. Various emails should be transmitted on time without any delays. The past guests they receive must not be sloppy. Slowly treat foreign guests, that is, international influence, and will be investigated by the court. Hangquan’s posts are not high, but they are the mission of the country, and only cautiously engage in. Strictly discipline yourself and take responsibility seriously. From this we can see the hardships and dangers of the silk road work.

7. Silk Road New Discovery

The word “Silk Road” was called by Li Xipifen. Although Sima Qian and Ban Gu did not invented the word, there were pictures of the Silk Road in their works. It is not known that the province’s excavation of Juyan Xinjian in 1974 was stored in a “mileage simplified”, which recorded the following text:

Seventy miles from Chang’an to Maoling, Mao Ling to Twenty -Five Miles, and Following Seventy -five Miles, it is better to go to the righteousness of seventy -five miles. Sixty miles from Puyang to Pinglin, Pinglin is stored to eighty miles of Gao Ping; ninety miles from the surrounding to Juju, the residence to the ninety miles of the Lili, the ninety miles of the miles, the sixty to the small Zhang Zhangye sixty Line; deleted Dan to the eighty -seven miles of the sun, the daylier to the Junzheng fifty miles, the Jun Ying to the fifty miles of the house, and the fifty miles of Yulan to the pond. 74Ept59: 582


This simplicity is called a mileage because of the distance between the place names and the distance between the place names. Coincidentally, similar simplifications were unearthed in the Xuanquan site.

Cangsong went to 65 miles of the birds, the birds went to Xiao Zhangye sixty miles, Xiao Zhangye went to Gu Zang’s sixty -seven miles, and Gu Zang went to the seventy -five miles of beauty; Under the 62 miles of Zhaowu, Zhaowu went to Qilian to set up sixty -one miles, and Qilian settled the table of seventy miles; Yumen went to Shatou 99 miles, Shatou went to Qi Qi for eighty -five miles, and Qi Qi went to Yuanyuan Fifty -eight miles. Eleven in the right Jiuquan County, 694 miles.丨 90dxt0214 (1): 130

These two Jianyuan is a compilation book in the traffic post road. From the writing format, it is arranged in the order of the counties of each county. The Silk Road of the opening of the Han Dynasty was real, and the specific route was explicitly reported to the world.

Xi’an, Xi’an, Shaanxi, Xianyang, Xixianyang, Xiyang, Yiyang, Gansu, Ning County, Ning County, Yixuan, Ningxia, Ningxia, Ningxia Guyuan, Gansu, Gansu, a Jingyuan, Lanzhou, Lan Lan, a Jingtai, one ancient wave, a Yongchang Yishan dan Dunhuang, a Yumen, Yimen, Jiayuguan.

This silk road has gone for two thousand years, and it is still a must. Coupled with the discovery of the Xuanquan site, we even recognized the specific process of operation. Therefore, Xuanquan is a lantern on the Silk Road, the star of the Silk Road Archeology.

(The author of this article is a researcher at the Gansu Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology.)

Editor in charge: Li Mei

School pair: Liu Wei