What did Minister of Khitan and women wear in the early Liao Dynasty? Why does the emperor love to wear Han clothing?


Recently, the TV series “Yanyuntai” is telling the story between Liao Muzong Yelu to Liao Shengzong Yelu Longxu. Although it is a real historical year, many of the details are the interpretation of literature. Many of them tell the story of Nanjing (now Beijing), one of the “Five Beijing” in the Liao Dynasty.

Youzhou has been a military town since ancient times. It is the forefront of the integration of ethnic minorities and the Han nationality. It is very important to have a strategic position. During the first year of the Tianfu (936) during the Song and Liao period, the later Jin Shi Jing was ceded to the Khitan (Liao) with the 16th State of Yan Yun, and the following year, Khitan was promoted to Youzhou as Youdu.

It is worth mentioning that many Liao Dynasty costumes appeared in the drama of “Yanyuntai”. In accordance with the history of the Khitan national social customs, you can still find that the costumes in the drama are based on the development of the plot, the visual aesthetics, and the needs of the character. In history, the costumes of the Liao Dynasty, especially the early Liao Dynasty costumes, had some differences. However, with the help of this TV series, let’s take a look at the social customs and costumes of the Khitan nation in history.

Minister Khitan and women do not hold Hanfu

The plot of “Yanyuntai” is twisted. In the play, the prime minister Xiao Siwen has three “thousand gold” on the house. The three of them are quite personality, especially the three daughters Xiao Yanyan. Corresponding to this, Xiao Yanyan’s clothes are also quite bold: in the play, she sometimes wore the Khitan nation and sometimes wearing Han skirts. If it is placed in a real historical context, this possibility is not too great.

衽 Liao Dynasty women’s left narrow sleeve robe

The Khitan people were nomadic peoples. After the establishment of the Liao Dynasty, the ethnic groups they governed were different. At that time, the central ruling institutions were divided into two systems of the North and South. The national system is simple, and the Han system is also the wind of the name. Liaoning officials are divided into the north and south courtyards. ” Management system. The management system south has completely followed the Tang system, while the management system in the north has strong nomadic nomadic people.

Correspondingly, the Liao Dynasty clothing system is also divided into two systems. “Liao Shi Yi Wei Zhizhi” said: “The Liao Dynasty’s clothing system, the north class system, and the Han system in the south, each of which each stubborn.” Officials naturally wear Hanfu. However, according to records, the monarchs of the Liao Kingdom at that time would also wear Hanfu, and since the Liaoxing Zongzhongxi (1032), Fan Grand Rites switched to Hanfu. , Clothing You Sheng. “

The plot of “Yanyuntai” has the plot of the Khitan and Han nationality. The Khitan woman also likes the Han’s silk clothing. Like it is a good thing, and wearing it is another one thing. Xiao Yanyan, the heroine in “Yanyun Tier”, is the daughter of Xiao Siwen, the prime minister of the north class. Although Xiao Fu has the conditions to contact and use the Han silk and clothing, according to the official system and system at the time, the women in Xiaofu must largely need to largely need It is unlikely to wear the Chinese clothing style of the Khitan national clothing style for a long time. Xiao Yanyan was the mother of Liao Shengzong later, that is, the famous Empress Xiao Xiao in “Yang Family”, but when she did not enter politics and controlled the power of Liaoning, she had to follow the Da Liao system. State system “. Even the Queen Mother and Khitan bureaucrats wear Khitan clothing. How can the Khitan noble women wear Hanjia clothes?

So, what did the emperor and minister wear during the Liao Dynasty?

The Liao Kingdom called the emperor’s service as the national service. “Liao Shi Yi Wei Zhi” records: In the big sacrifice, the emperor, “serving the golden culture and gold crown, the white robe, the red belt, the hanging fish … decorated with the rhino -jade sword, the sewing black boots.” In the small festival, ” The emperor’s hard hat, the red gramchti turtle robe. “Chaojian is” Shili Xue’s crown, a red robe, and decorated with rhino jade with the wrong and sewing boots. “

In the normal dynasty, the official uniforms of the Liao Dynasty were divided into public services and regular clothes. “Liao Shi Yi Wei Zhi” records: The emperor’s public service is wearing purple, black scarf, purple narrow robe, jade belt around the waist, or red jacket. The public service of the Genman of Liao State was wearing felt and gauze. “The felt hat is decorated with golden flowers, or the bead jade cosmetic hair, the forehead hangs the golden flower, woven it into a pinch, and the medium is stored in the middle.” Golden flowers, purple bands, no beads.

袍 Liao Dynasty men’s robe clothing

The dresses of the emperor of the Liao Dynasty were green narrow robes, and the clothing in the robe was mostly red and green. The conscience of the courtiers is wearing a purple narrow robe and wrapped in yellow and red strips. The decorations include golden jade, crystal, and vermiculite.

In addition, the northern climate is cold, and fur is necessary. The senior officials show the noble mink fur, with purple and black mink as expensive, and the cyan mink is second. Low -level officials are made of mink hair, sheepskin, rat leather, sand fox, etc.

In the TV series of “Yanyuntai”, there are many dramas about the Emperor Liao and the royal family, such as Liao Muzong Yeluyu, the third son of Liaoya A Baosuji, Yelu Lihu, etc., but in the play, their robes except left. In addition to this significant feature, the characteristics of the national costumes of Khitan are not significant.

The Khitan national robe clothes are different from the lack of shirts worn by the Han people in the Central Plains. The Khitan robes are not slit on both sides, nor are they seamless straight horn, but slit on the hips. The two slits are fixed together in a button, and the buttons are unlocked when riding. The robe is in the middle single (one layer in the robe). There are two types of straight collar and round neck in the middle single. There are red or blue cloth bands in the middle single, and there are two leading leaders. together.


In fact, the color of the officials of the north of Liao State is also relatively single, mainly red and green. Generally, the cheese of the subjects are simple and dark in color. Most of them are used in intermediate coloring materials such as copper green, dark blue, brown, and vermiculite.

In “Yanyun Territory”, the prime minister of the Taiping, the King of the Clothing, and the Prime Minister of Xiao Siwen belong to the North class official, and the color is complicated and does not conform to the facts of the Liao Dynasty. Assume that the color of the service is diverse, and it is also used in the Nanshi officials. After all, the official uniforms of the southern class include purple, red, crushing, and green.

This is also a historical reason. Khitan is a nomadic nation. The latitude climate of the nation is cold, and there are many fur products. Textiles basically rely on trade with the Central Plains region. The practicality of clothing is greater than beautification and fashion, and the style is relatively single.

In “Yanyun Terrace”, when Han Deng was not a leader, when he visited the prime minister Xiao Siwen, his dress was very avant -garde and fashionable. The round neck shirt and secretly lapel with metal buckle and decorated with a ring buckle. Such clothing, Liao people can’t do it, and it is a fashion model today.

What clothes do women wear in Liao Dynasty

The heroine of “Yanyuntai” is Xiao Yanyan. The development of the plot has a lot of relationships with the life of the three sisters of Xiao Fu. So, what are the characteristics of the Khitan nation, especially women’s clothing? The costumes of the Khitan nation are mainly robes, and men and women wear the same robes. The style is generally round neck narrow sleeves, tight and thin. The placket is shown to the left, that is, the left. The robe was stuck, and the robe was slit on both sides.

Liaoning women’s robes, also known as dresses. “Golden History · Public Servant” records: “Women’s skirts are mostly black and purple. Embroidered golden branches on the top of the body, and on Saturday (襞 《, referring to the folds on the clothes). Purple or soap and salamander, straight leading the left side, the sides of the seam, mostly double the stubborn accumulation, the front of the ground, the back of the ground ruler, the color with red and yellow … this is all Liao clothes, the gold also strikes it. ” For the dark blue with purple, the deepest color in the blue system. It can be seen that there is a white intertwined underwear in the ladies of the Liao Dynasty. The lower body is wearing a skirt in the robe, the waist band, and the two ends of the brocade are dragged behind them.


This kind of women’s group shirt was unearthed from Xing’an League in Inner Mongolia. This group shirt is straight collar and left. It is woven with yellow -brown diamonds. It does not have a slit on both sides, 154 cm in length, 192 cm in sleeve, 16 cm width of the cuffs, and 115 cm width. In addition, in the murals of the Liao Tomb of the Zuoqi Tower Mountain in Cuban, Inner Mongolia, there are also the image of the lady of the Khitan traditional robe.


袍Chidan’s traditional robe, the image of the lady of the lady

The color of the women’s clothing in Liaoning is far less colorful as the Han people’s clothing. In addition to red and green, the other are mainly black, purple, and brown dark colors. Of course, the queen of the Liao Kingdom is far more colorful than the costumes of other lives (the women who have the title). , Shuangxin Pa, pedaling seam black boots. The color of the clothing of the woman’s clothing is based on the color of the banner of the affiliation.

The queen’s usual clothes include Zijin Baifeng skirt, apricot golden skirt, etc. Although they are the Khitan costumes, their names and styles are close to Hanfu. It is probably the improvement of the Khitan after implementing the Chinese policy. The clothing of the Liaoning women in “Yanyuntai” is very beautiful and colorful. Except for the significant difference between Zuo Yan, it seems that there is no much difference with Han clothing. This should be noted.


Diverse forms of phoenix crown in Liao Dynasty


The Khitan and Han people, Liao Dynasty clothing and Central Plains clothing are completely two systems in the two cultural context. Although the Liao Dynasty existing national costumes and Hanfu coexisted, the narrow robe and left of the Khitan were different from the Han people’s wide robes and right. In addition, the difference between the crown hat is also very large. In the Liao Dynasty, in addition to the cold, the crown hat was more reflected in the grade. “Liao History” records: Except for the emperor and officials with a certain status, they can wear crowns and towels, and everyone else is not allowed to wear scarves and hats privately. Regardless of the summer winter, small and medium -sized officials and civilians can only be on their heads. The commonly used hat of Khitan is made of felt and fur with golden flowers on it. In addition to hats, aristocrats can also wear black scarves and can wear felt in winter.

Judging from this historical record, the use of crown caps in “Yanyuntai” is not so strict, which is different from history.

According to historical records, the royal family in Liao Dynasty liked gold or golden crowns. In archeological excavations, many golden crowns, gilt gold crowns, and silver crowns were unearthed. The Phoenix began in the Han Dynasty. It is the most valuable ritual crown in the women’s crown cap. Since the middle and late Tang Dynasty, women’s crowns have become increasingly common. In the fifth generation, there were names such as “Bilo Crown” and “Deer Tire Crown”. In the Southern Song Dynasty, the phoenix crown was made on the shape of the phoenix, and the dragon shape was added, called “dragon and phoenix flower crown”. The original painting of the Song Dynasty in the Song Dynasty in Nanxun Dianzang was particularly tall and complicated, and there were many dragons and phoenixes on the crown. Generally, it can be called “Dragon and Phoenix Pearl Cuigou”.

There is also a golden crown corresponding to the unearthed cultural relics. In the play, the prime minister Xiao Siwen, the golden crown used by the eldest daughter of Xiao Siwen and the Taiping King Yelu, is made from the unearthed gold and silver crown of the Liao Kingdom.

The two gold and silver crowns were unearthed in the Liao Tomb of Zhangjiayingzi Township, Jianping County, Liaoning and the Tomb of the Nunan Qi Liao Liao Tomb of the Naimannan Naiman in Inner Mongolia. The golden crowns unearthed from the Liao Tomb of Zhangjiayingzi Township were rolled up with thin silver pieces. The tomb owner of the Tomb of the Inner Mongolia is Princess Chen Guo during the Liao Shengzong period. This golden crown is combined with four Guiyin silver pieces into a cylindrical shape, which is condensed with silver wire. At the top, the coronary has a hollow pattern. In the play, Xiao Hu’s golden crown shape actually combines the shape of Princess Chen Guo’s silver crown and the golden crown of the Queen of Liao Dynasty.

Golden Crown in Liao Dynasty (unearthed from Liaoning Tomb, Zhangjiayingzi Township, Zhangjiaying, Liaoning)

金 Liao Dynasty high -winged gold and silver crown (unearthed in the Tomb of Liao Liao in Inner Mongolia)

The Queen of the Liao Dynasty should wear a hollow phoenix bird pattern gold crown. This golden crown also unearthed in physical objects. This golden crown is a high barrel shape, and the coronary is combined with four petals -shaped golden pieces into a cylindrical shape; Wingbird, the bird stepped on the lotus seat with both feet, tail tilted high, and his wings were flying. The entire golden crown is dignified and the production process is complicated.


凤 Liao Dynasty hollow phoenix bird pattern Golden crown (Gansu Provincial Museum)

Liao Army armor quality is average

The armor of the Khitan samurai in “Yanyuntai” is strictly wrapped and exquisitely produced. For example, King Taiping and Han De let the generals of the soldiers are very delicate, and in fact the quality of the Liaoning armor is average.

The Jun Rong costumes of the Liao Dynasty include the helmet, the armor worn on the body, the waist and the waist and the leather belt, the jersey, the bow sac -arrow bag and the vest. Their helmets are divided into three types of materials: iron are iron helmets, leather is made of leather, and felt seams are called ear caps.

The Liao Army Samurai Armor is composed of four parts: armor, chest armor, hanging legs, and covering. Although the Liaoning nations are soldiers, soldiers use iron helmets and armor are not common. They are mainly used by reinstalled cavalry, namely iron troops, and the number is not many. Other arms use leather and felt hats, and the protection is relatively weak.

The Liaoning Elite Cavalry Iron Armor, the Fifth Dynasties and Song Dynasty style of the Tang Dynasty, mainly Song. Compared with the armor of the Song Dynasty, the legs of the Liao Army armor are shorter than the armor of the Song Dynasty; there are round armor in the abdomen, hanging in front of the abdomen with a belt; a circular armor on the chest, just like the heart mirror; There are also armor, which is used earlier than the Central Plains region.

In addition to metal products, Liaoning armor also has leather armor. The main parts of the leather armor are decorated with the main parts of the shoulder, chest, and abdomen, which is equivalent to compound armor, one is the leather, and the other is iron.

侍 Five Dynasties Khitan guard clothing clay sculpture

The guards in the Liao Guo Palace did not wear armor, when there was no soft armor like a lock. Only the Liao Kingdom monarch wore a clever, small -shaped nursing body, and put his heart armor in the robe. “Liao Shi Yi Wei Zhi II” records: “Taizu Bingyin is the emperor, and he is in the nice nail. It can be seen that the guards around the Liao Lord in” Yaoyun Tier “are all armored. It is not in line with historical facts. As for Han Dezang’s oblique back armor, the Liao Dynasty did not have been in the history of the Liao Dynasty.

The major ceremony of the Emperor Liao Kingdom wears Hanfu

As mentioned earlier, the Liao Dynasty Khitan ministers wore their national costumes, but the monarchs of the Liao Dynasty did not wear the Khitan national costumes, but wearing Han clothing. Especially during major ceremonies such as worship, the Liao Dynasty owners also wore Hanfu.

This has a lot to do with Liao Shengzong’s start to advocate Sinicization. During the Liao Shengzong period, the Han people were reused, such as Han Kuangzhang and Han De letting their father and son have been left behind as Nanjing Youzhou Government (now Beijing), and they were reused by military merits. Han Deren later got the relying on the Empress Dowager, and also received the secret envoys of the north and the south. Since the Liao Xingzong Chongxi (1032-1055), Fan Da Gao has changed to Hanfu. According to the “Liao Shi” records, the Liao Dynasty later formulated the official uniforms of the emperor, the crown prince, the prince, the kings, and the officials in accordance with the Han clothing system.

The emperors of the Liao Dynasty had uniforms, suits, public clothes, and regular clothes; the crown prince had the crown of the virtuous and the crown of Germany; The emperor of the Liao Dynasty worshiped the ancestral temple and wore a uniform when he was sent out. Its style was basically the same as the emperor of the Central Plains Han regime. The dresses of the emperor of the Liao Dynasty were “柘 yellow robers, folding headscarves, nine rings, Liuhe boots.” This is also consistent with the Tang Dynasty emperor’s often served in the records of “Old Tang Book” and “New Tang Book”. It should be pointed out that Tongtian Crown, Yuanyou Crown, Jinxian Crown, Jinde Crown, Wing Shan Crown, etc. are all the crown hats of the Han people. At this time, it is used by the Liao Kingdom, indicating that the Liao State has the respect of Central Plains clothing.

Han Delang in the drama of “Yanyuntai” is a real figure in history. “Liao Shi Yelu Longyun Biography” records: Yelu Longyun is Han Delang (941-1011), “There is wise, Mingzhi, and happy.” He was born in the Liao Kingdom. At the end of the Tang Dynasty, Han Dezang’s grandfather Han Zhigu was captured by the Khitan to Liao. However, when Han De let his father Han Kuangzhang, because Han Kuangyi could be used to fight, he became a rare general in Liao. Han Dejie was influenced by his father’s fighting in the Liao Kingdom since he was a child. He had the courage and conspiracy to make great achievements for the Liao Kingdom.