The source and evolution of the story of “Historical Records of Zhao Shijia” “Zhao’s orphan”



The legend of “Zhao’s orphan” is familiar to everyone. This is a subject that Chinese and foreign writers like it very much. One of the four tragedies of Chinese classical classics is the miscellaneous drama “Zhao’s Orphan” of the Yuan Dynasty Junxiang; the French literary man Voltaire was also inspired to create a poem drama “Chinese Orphan”; Movies of the same name. In different works, the story of “Zhao’s orphan” is slightly different, but the outline is basically the same, and the outline of this story can be traced back to “Historical Records of Zhao Shijia”.

“Zhao’s Orphan” stills

Tai Shigong, who contradicts each other

According to “Zhao Shijia”, Jin Linggong had a conflict with the monarch Jin Linggong. Jin Linggong repeatedly wanted to kill Zhao Dun. The monarch “public case. After that, Zhao Dunli, Uncle Jin Linggong, Jin Chenggong was the monarch, and Jin Chenggong passed on the son Jin Jinggong. At this point, Zhao Dun died. In the three years of Jin Jinggong (597 BC), Zhao Shuo’s son Zhao Shuo led the Jin Kingdom to rescue Zheng Guo and fought with King Chuzhuang on the edge of the Yellow River (that is, the battle of 邲); after the war, Zhao Shuo married Sister Jin Chenggong is a wife. That is, in the same year, Jin Guo Kou Tu’an Jia Xian destroyed Zhao.

At that time, Zhao Dun had a dream. Dreaming of the ancestor of the Jin Dynasty Zhao’s ancestor, he cried with his back pain, and then laughed and clapped his hand to applaud. Zhao Dun had a divination on this. As a result, the cracks on the turtle shell were interrupted, but later recovered. Zhao’s Shi Zhao believes that this dream is a fierce sign. Zhao Dun’s fault should be verified on his son. When his grandson’s generation, the Zhao family was even more declining. Sure enough, at this time, Tu Anjia was wanting to liquidate the murder of Ling Gong. He proposed to the generals: “Although Zhao Dun didn’t know, he was the leader of the rebellious party. Since he was the monarch, how could his children still pay back. Can you be an official in the North? So please kill them! “

Only the doctor Han Jue expressed his opposition. He believed: “Zhao Dun was not present when Ling Gong was killed. Didn’t Xianjun think that he was not guilty? Now everyone wants to kill his descendants, it is against the wishes of Xianjun; and Don’t ask for the country, isn’t this the same? “Tu Anjia didn’t listen, so Han Jue informed Zhao Shuo to run quickly. But Zhao Shuo was unwilling. He said to Han Jue: “You will not let Zhao’s incense cut off, then I have no regrets when I die!” Han Jue promised his request and lied that he couldn’t go out. Tu Anjia really led the general to attack Zhao in the lower palace without asking for instructions, killing Zhao Shuo and his three uncle Zhao Tong, Zhao Kuo, Zhao Yingqi.

Zhao Dun’s father, Zhao Yan, gave birth to the three brothers of Zhao Tong, Zhao Kuo, and Zhao Yingqi when he was Jin. After that, he followed his son to Zhai Guo. Sister gave birth to Zhao Dun, and Chong Er married her sister. Zhao Tong’s three brothers and Zhao clan died in the lower palace. Only Mrs. Zhao Shuo Zhao Zhuang Ji was pregnant with the six, because she hid in the nephew Jinggong Palace.

In addition, Zhao Shuo also also had a friend Cheng Ying and a guest Gongsun Ji Ji, and they did not die in this turmoil. Later they met one day. Gongsun Ji Jiu asked Cheng Ying: “Why don’t you die for Zhao’s?” Cheng Ying said: “Zhao Shuo’s wife is pregnant, if it is a boy, I will raise him. If it is a girl, I will die again!” , But he confirmed that Cheng Ying was his own way, instead of doing the sacrifice of stones with eggs. Soon after, Zhuang Ji gave birth to a boy. This incident made Tu Anjia know, so he went to the palace to search. Zhuang Ji hid the baby in his pants, and the baby escaped the search without a voice. Cheng Ying also heard of this, so he asked Gongsun Ji Jiu to discuss. Gongsun Ji Jiu proposed to sacrifice herself, and Cheng Ying asked Cheng Ying to accept more difficult tasks.

So the two found a baby outside and put him in good -looking clothes to hide in the mountains. Then Cheng Ying came out of the mountain to find the generals, saying that he knew that Zhao’s orphan and Gongsun Ji Jiu were together, asking for a thousand money to tell them the hiding place. So everyone found Gongsun Ji Jiu. Gongsun Ji Jiu scolded Cheng Ying, who had hidden the orphan of Zhao’s in the first place. Now even if he can’t raise it, how can he bear to sell it? Then he cried with the baby: “Cangli! What sin of the child? Please let him go, just kill me!” How could the general agreed? So Gongsun Ji Jiu and the baby were killed.

Fifteen years later, Jin Jing was sick, and the result of divination was the descendants of the great cause. The great cause is the ancestor of the surname, and the Qin and the Jin Kingdom Zhao are both descendants. Jinggong asked Han Jue what was going on. Han Jue was entrusted by Zhao Shuo and knew the situation of the orphan of Zhao. So he said, “Isn’t it Zhao’s descendants who broke the incense in the Jin Dynasty? The surname of the surname of the surname and Zhou Tianzi, who left the Zhou Dynasty when he was in the uncle, went to the Jin Dynasty to assist Wenhou, and he was able to set up Zhao. There is no cutting off incense. However, you have perished their family, and the people of the Jin people are sad, so it will be displayed when divination. I hope you think about it! “

Jinggong lamented: “Is Zhao’s descendants and descendants?” Han Jue saw the opportunity, and quickly told Jinggong to the truth. So Jinggong decided to restore the aristocratic identity of Zhao’s orphans, and Cheng Ying took the Zhao Wu of the Zhao family who had been hidden in the palace. At that time, the generals entered the palace and asked Jinggong’s illness, and Jinggong asked Zhao Wu to meet with them. The generals were very embarrassing and pushed away and said, “This is all the fake life of Tu’an Jia, and if you are not on the Jun, you will also take the initiative to ask Zhao Wu. Isn’t your order now our wish?” Cheng Ying and Zhao Wu led the generals to destroy Tu Anjia, and Jinggong also returned Zhao’s land to Zhao Wu.

After another five years, Zhao Wu was at the age of 20. Cheng Ying saw Zhao Wu’s adult, so he said, “When the change of the palace, everyone could die. I was not able to die, but I just wanted to help Zhao’s. Let’s report to Zhao and Gongsun Ji Jiu! “Zhao Wu cried with a headache, thinking that he would rather suffer from suffering, and he had to repay Cheng Ying until he died. But Cheng Ying was irony. He said, “Ji Jiu thinks that I can complete the major events, and then I will go first; if I do n’t go back to my life, he will think that I have not completed the task!” So he died. After that, Zhao Wu had been filial piety for three years.

“Historical Records of Han Shijia” is similar to “Zhao Shijia”, but the content is relatively simple; while “Jin Shijia” said that the seventeenth year of Jin Jinggong (583 BC), Jin Guo killed Zhao Tong and Zhao Kuo. And destroy their family. Han Jue said, “How can I forget the credit of Zhao Yan and Zhao Dun that year, so that they can cut off the incense?” So Jin Jun asked Zhao’s sister -in -law Zhao Wu to inherit Zhao, and named him. The “Twelve Princes New Year” is also consistent with “Jin Shijia”. It can be seen that the biggest difference between “Jin Shijia” compared to “Zhao Shijia” is the occurrence of the changes of the lower palace.

Code of “Zhao’s Orphan” in “The Selection of Yuan Qu”

Destroyed blood cases caused by love, inner crickets, conspiracy

“Jin Shijia” and “Twelve Princes Year Tables” said that in the seventeenth year of Jin Jinggong (583 BC), Jin Guo killed Zhao Tong and Zhao Kuo. This statement should be traced back to “Zuo Zhuan”. The earliest record of “changes in the lower palace”. So, “Zuo Zhuan” records the orphan of Zhao?

In the Spring and Autumn Period, the “Sixth Army System” of the military and political union was implemented. The national army was divided into three troops. In the same way, they were also the State Qingshi (equivalent to the prime minister), of which the Chinese army would be the CEO. In 601 BC, the Chinese army in the Jin Dynasty would be lacking. He promoted Zhao Shuo, the son of Zhao Dun as the next army. Then Zhao Dun may die or retire in this year, and Jin Chenggong will not die until next year, and then Jin Jinggong is ascended. Before Zhao Dun died, he had given the doctor to the third brother Zhao Kuo, that is, Zhao Kuo as the Zhao’s master.

Different from “Zhao Shijia”, Zhao Yan first married a girl as a woman Zhao Dun, and after returning to China as Jin Wengong, he married Jin Wengong’s daughter Zhao Ji and gave birth to Zhao Tong, Zhao Kuo, Zhao Yingqi Three brothers, so these three are Zhao Dun’s mother -in -law. At this time, Zhao Dun had died, and the three were still alive. During the Battle of 597 BC, Zhao Shuo served as the general army, Zhao Kuo and Zhao Yingqi served as the doctor of the Chinese army. Although the three brothers were not as good as Zhao Shuo from the government position, the Zhao’s Lord was still Zhao Kuo at this time.

But in the battle of Jin Qi eight years later, there was no whereabouts of Zhao Shuo. The next army will be replaced by Zhao Shuo’s deputy Luan Shu, but the Xiajun Zuo has not recorded. Then Zhao Shuo has died or retired due to illness before that, which is also different from “Zhao Shijia”. One year later, in order to recognize the battle of the saddle, Jin Jinggong expanded the army to the twelve Qingqing of the Six Army. Zuo still did not record. Considering that Zhao Shuo’s departure should be replaced by Zhao’s, the unscrupulous Jun Zuo should be Zhao Dun’s second brother Zhao Tong. At this time, Zhao’s was the most powerful with Zhao Tong.

Because of the departure of Zhao Shuo, his son Zhao Wu was young, so whether it was Zhao’s sovereign or the first person in the military and political circles of the Jin Dynasty, it had nothing to do with Zhao Dun. However, a peach -colored news occurred at this time. In 587 BC, Zhao Shuo’s widow Zhuang Ji couldn’t bear the loneliness. He actually hired with her husband’s uncle Zhao Yingqi. At this time, Zhao Shuo had died of illness. The following year, Zhao Tong and Zhao Kuo learned of this and felt that his brother corrupted the door style and ordered to exile the country. Although Zhao Yingqi did not check the style, the magic was better than the two brothers. He asked his brother to forgive him and reminded him that if he was not there, Luan Shu would be chaotic.

Luan Shu is still a general in the saddle battle, but in just five years, he has become a general in the leader. It can be seen that this person has very means. Zhao Yingqi’s worry is not without reason. When the Zhao family was in Zhao Dun, she was hateful by other families. Zhao Shuo and Zhao Yingqi can coordinate all aspects of the relationship, but Zhao Tong and Zhao Kuo are people with their brains, and they do not hide their desire to power. In the previous Liuqing, there was only Zhao’s seat. Now it has expanded to the twelve Qing, but it was occupied by Zhao Tong, Zhao Kuo, and Zhao Yan, and naturally caused the hatred of other families. These “Zhao Shijia” did not record.

In 583 BC, Zhao Zhuang Ji, who had lost her husband and lover, took the lead in the first time, and announced to Jin Jing publicly to report against Zhao Tong and Zhao Kuo, and found Luan Shu and another family to testify. So Jin Jinggong sent troops to fight Zhao’s family and killed Zhao Tong and Zhao Kuo. Zhao Shuo resigned from 597 BC -589 BC, and it was most likely to die early. In 542 BC, Zhao Wu was less than 50 years old, so Zhao Wu was born from 591 BC to 589 BC. In Jinjing Gong Palace. Zhao Ji is also unlikely to be aunt Jin Jinggong, and it is more likely to be Jin Jinggong’s sister.

After Zhao Tong and Zhao Kuo were killed, Jin Jinggong wanted to give Zhao Tutian to Qi Qi, and Qi Yan resigned. At the same time, Han Jue came out to speak for Zhao’s. He said: “Zhao’s merit, Zhao Dun’s loyalty, but there are no descendants to inherit, so how are you afraid of it? Three generations can maintain it for hundreds of years. Have you ever come out of the evil king? This is all the wiseness of the ancestors! “Jin Jinggong felt that it made sense, so Zhao Wu became the Lord of the Zhao family and returned to Tutian. This incident happened after the changes in the palace in 583 BC. At this time, the young Zhao Wu had become the Lord of Zhao, which was different from the “Zhao Shijia”.

The above is the story of “Zhao’s Orphan” in “Zuo Zhuan”, which is much more peaceful compared to “Zhao Shijia”. The cause was that a widow and his uncle were private. The uncle was rushed away by the two brothers. The widow was lonely and unbearable, and then accused the other two uncle rebelling. Luan, but the family could not see the two for a long time, taking this opportunity to make them nest, but did not affect the entire Zhao family. Not only did Zhao Wu have no thrills, but even Zhao Yan was not implicated. And Zhao Yan’s father is not someone else, it is Zhao Yi, who kills Jin Linggong. Cheng Gong and Jing Gong’s father and son have come from Zhao Dun and Zhao’s merits. Naturally, they will not clear the descendants of the two.

As for Tu Anjia, even if it exists, it will not have much effect. As mentioned earlier, the Jin Dynasty implemented the “three armies and six Qing system”, and the state power was firmly in the hands of Liuqing. Although there were secrets in charge of punishment, it was not an important official position. After this position. When the Mandarin · Jin language records Jin Wengong’s father Jin Xiangong’s death, the minister Rick sent a doctor named Tu Anyi to Zhai Guo to meet the throne. Tu An has seen this in the pre -Qin literature, and Tu Anjia’s record only exists in “Zhao Shijia” and “Han Shijia”. When the lower palace was changed, it was the Chinese army General Luan Shu.

Since Zhao Wu’s succession follows the changes in the lower palace, Cheng Ying and Gongsun Ji Jiu have no room for activity. The two are fictional figures. Judging from the social form of the mid -spring and autumn, Gongsun Jiuju and Cheng Ying, such as guests and friends, would not exist at the time. Because the main body of the society at that time was the clan (the literature was called the “family” or “family”). After that, the two hid in the mountains again. This was difficult for individual families or individuals to survive independently during the Spring and Autumn Period where the productive forces were backward and needed to co -cultivate.

As for Han Jue, he is the first hero of Zhao’s rejuvenation. He was the prince of the Han Dynasty at the time. After the war of the saddle, he became one of the twelve Qing army, but he started very early. According to “Jin Yu”, Han Jue stepped into politics to serve as Sima who mastered military law. It was derived from Zhao Dun’s recommendation in 615 BC. Zhao Dun’s descendants retain the nobles. Jinggong itself does not need to abolish Zhao’s sealed land. On the contrary, it is also good to stay to check the other Qing people. Later, Han and Zhao Liangshi supported each other until the three divisions.

In summary, from the record of the most informative history book “Zuo Zhuan” in the history of Spring and Autumn, the mistakes of “Zhao Shijia” and “Han Shijia” are particularly obvious. In fact, predecessors often correct the mistakes of “Historical Records” with “Zuo Zhuan”. For example, the Tang people Kong Yingda said, “Ma Qian said, not to be followed.” The Qing people Liang Yu, Zhao Yi, Ma Yan, and today’s Yang Bojun all supported this view. This should be considered a relatively mainstream and scientific view. Of course, there are also different opinions. For example, the Qing people Gao Shiqi said, “Eternal suspected cases, and they are the two deposits.” But these are not convincing.

Cheng Yingxiang

N face of “Zhao’s orphan”

Of course, “Zuo Zhuan” may not be completely credible. For example, in the conflict between Jin Linggong and Zhao Dun, Zhao Dun repeatedly advised Ling Gong to reform the mistakes, and Linggong sent a assassin to assassinate Zhao Dun. He arrived at Zhao Dun’s house a long time before he was in the upper dynasty.鉏麑 鉏麑 鉏麑 鉏麑 鉏麑 鉏麑 鉏麑 鉏麑, abandoning the mission and not convinced, simply committed suicide. How can the historical officials know before the death? Mr. Tong Shuye pointed out: “The record of” Zuo Zhuan “is very favorable to Zhao’s, it is really incredible.” Therefore, “Zuo Zhuan” has deviated from historical facts to a certain extent, and “Zhao Shijia” seems to be even more logical. Essence

So why did Tai Shigong record a vulnerability story? In fact, this situation of self -conflict is not uncommon in the “Historical Records”, and a attitude of Tai Shigong’s “Historical Records” is “faith to pass on the letter, doubt to doubt, so there are two words.” Instead different information in different chapters, to judge the readers themselves. In fact, Ethereum’s talents are not unable to notice the fiction of the Zhao’s orphan story, but it is greatly moved and appreciated by the theme of the promise, grace, humiliation, and revenge in the story. “Family”, but as the main line of the history of the Jin Dynasty, it is still mainly “Jin Shijia”.

In fact, it can also be found from the text of “Zhao Shijia” to find its legend, that is, it has used four dreams to run through the whole article. The first dream was the incident of Uncle Zhao Dream. After that, Zhao’s decline and revived; the second dream was that Zhao Yan dreamed of himself in the late Spring and Autumn Period. The foundation; the third dream is that Zhao Wuling in the middle of the Warring States Period dreamed of a girl named a girl. After that, Zhao Guo abandoned his child and began to decline. The national funeral division was in the battle of Changping, and since then.

These four dreams with predicted colors are of course not historical records, but consciously created by the Zhao Di people from the end of the Warring States Period to the early Western Han Dynasty. There have been very wonderful comments in Li Jingxing’s “Historical Records”: “Especially wonderful, in the embellishment of the four dreams, so that the front and rear bones are psychic … … The text, that’s not the case. “It can be seen that the legend of the entire Zhao’s orphan is not only the defeat of Tai Shigong, but the ingenuity of the God of God. “Historical Records” is known as “the historian’s singing,” Li Sao “without rhyme, and it can be seen that the name is actually.

Since the part of “Zhao Shijia” is based on the legend of Zhao Di, the story will of course consciously cover up the negative news of Zhao Guo. The Spring and Autumn Nations still referred to this incident as “Meng Ji Zhi”, thinking that Zhao Zhuangji was the culprit that caused this incident, but in “Zhao Shijia”, Zhao Zhuangji became a poor widow. In order to suture the historical records of Zhao Wu in 583 BC, the change time of the lower palace was advanced to 597 BC, that is, the last year of Zhao Shuo in “Zuo Zhuan”, and the design will be Zhao Shuo, Zhao Yingqi died in the coup.


In fact, in “Mandarin · Zhou Yu”, there is a story similar to Zhao’s orphan. When the Chinese riot, Zhou Li rushed to the ground, and the prince was quietly hiding in the call of the Gonggong Tiger’s house. The angry Chinese asked to call the prince to get the prince, and Zhao Gong said, “I have persuaded the king many times in the past, and the king did not hear it. Now if the prince is killed, the king will think that I am venting anger. Don’t complain, you should not be angry, not to mention that he is serving the emperor? “So he took out his son to replace it, and when the prince grew up, he called the public tiger to help him ascended the throne, that is, King Zhou Xuan.


There is also a story recorded in “The Biography of the Gongyang”. When Lu Xiaogong was young in the early Spring and Autumn Period, the daughter of the king of the country was Mrs. Lu Guojun, and it was Lu Xiaogong’s mother or grandmother. Relying on her daughter to hold her harem, she actually raped the nine princesses of Lu Guo, and then the bad guys wanted to kill Xiaogong. A nanny of Xiaogong heard that there were bad guys, so he left his son in the palace instead, and hugged Xiaogong to find the doctor of Lu Guo and Liang Buzi, and finally removed the Yan Gong, Lu Yan, Lu, and Lu. Xiaogong was able to reset.

It is worth noting that the calligraphy tiger of “Mandarin” and “The Biography of the Gongyang” Zang’s mother all surrendered their own sons, but in “Zhao Shijia”, Cheng Ying and Gongsun Ji Jiu were found by others. son. “The Biography of the Rams” is one of the Confucian classics “Spring and Autumn Three Biography”. The Confucian concept of “Mandarin” is heavier, and it is also called “Spring and Autumn Poor”. This shows that although Cheng Ying and Gongsun Ji Jiu’s concept of rewarding are not recognized by the Confucian Confucianism, they may be more in line with the thoughts of the lower levels of the Warring States Period and Qin and Han. Then although the story of Zhao’s orphan is not a real spring and autumn history, it is an important literature that reflects the history of the social thoughts of the Warring States Period.

Liu Xiang, who was a little later than Tai Shigong, wrote two historical documents, “New Preface” and “Talking Garden”, and also narrated the story of Zhao’s orphans. The record of Zhao’s orphan in “New Preface · Ji Shi” is basically the same as “Zhao Shijia”. The difference is that Liu Xiang’s comments are added later. Scholars, but Cheng Ying did not need to commit suicide to the deceased. Although the story and the context of “Talking Garden · Fann” are basically the same as “Zhao Shijia”, the protagonist of the narrative has become Han Jue, of which Han Jue has added a lot of remarks. Forgotten.

Da Shigong records another important significance of Zhao’s orphan story, which is exactly providing excellent literary materials for future generations. Liu Xiang has initially performed this story, but it really spreads this story to the household name, and it is necessary to go to Ji Junxiang’s “Zhao’s Orphan”. “Zhao’s Orphan” was born and carried forward at this time, because its theme is adapted to the Han psychology under the rule of Mongolia. Its content has changed greatly compared to “Zhao Shijia”, and even a bit completely deviated from historical facts, but through design sensational scenes, enhanced ethical conflicts, and shaping moral models, it has become a wonderful and exciting, rewarding and punishment, and referrals. story.


Bai Guohong: “Research on the Zhao Family of the Spring and Autumn Period” [M], Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, 2007.


Guo Biheng: “Historical Records” Folklore Exploration and Discovery “[M], Beijing: Intellectual Property Publishing House, 2012.

Tong Shuye, Tongjiao British school ordering: “History of Spring and Autumn” (school book) [M], Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, 2012.

Wang Licuo: “Two Relaxs of Liu Xiang’s Story of Zhao’s Orphan” [n], “China Art News”, April 10, 2013.

Editor in charge: Zhong Yuan

School pair: Liu Wei