Expert in the case, comprehensive autumn review: Qi Shan, as a legal person


Zhao Jinhua

Speaking of Qi Shan (1790-1854), traditional historical narratives have confronted him and the famous snakers Lin Zexu, and shape him into a traitor image of traitors. His other image is far away.

Chen Kangqi, who is fifty -year -old, said that “his talents have also been self -conflict”, (“Lang Qianji Wen Four Pen” Volume 7) This is still a pan -theory, and it is likely to be passed down from the officialdom. According to Jin Anqing, who is slightly older, Qi Shan “is simple and frugal, and the officials are seen. (“Water Window Spring” volume) This is really much more cut. Zeng Jixin, who Zeng Jishan and his subordinates, admired him, praised him, “The talent is extremely popular, the opportunity to see the opportunity, the criminal name Qian Gu, and the official ruling business, all are familiar; The intention is strict; the folding is not to leave others, everything is decent, and the meaning of writing is simple and methodic. ” (“Daoxian Hai Sea Sea”, Zhonghua Book Company, 1981, p. 154) At the same time, Xin Xin Narr’s scriptures even pushed Qi Shan’s “criminal name, Qiangu, example, camp system, and military law. “(” Dao Xianhuan Sea Sea “, p. 93) The evaluation was unable to add. After the death of Qi Shan’s death, the clan also lamented: “For example, for decades, this person has died for decades, and now there is no one!” Page 155) Notice, these words were said after the first Opium War.

Qi Shan

In the mouth of the late Qing scholars, Qi Shan’s talent was first reflected in the familiarity of the Tao of Criminal Name Qian Gu. This is not surprising, because Qi Shan started with a prisoner. After winning Shi Yu, he also established the foundation of his later position.

“Biography of the Qing Dynasty” Volume 40: “Qi Shan was born in Jiaqing in the eleventh year of Jiaqing, and was divided into the criminal department. Thirteen years, supplementary officials.” Qi Shan was born in the Manchurian nobleman. The Ministry of Criminal Affairs, from the Five Pin’s members of Lang Lang, officially supplemented at the age of 19, the starting point of entering the official was not high. Of course, this experience does not seem to have any special features for the young children of the time. Yin Sheng was awarded the heads of the Ministry of Criminal and the head of the Ministry of Industry. However, the Ministry of Guanzheng’s Ministry of Governance still put forward higher requirements for the first person. You must know that the Ministry of Criminal Affairs, as the highest judicial gate of the Qing Empire, is “the general remittance of the world’s criminal name”, and its professionalism is the crown of six ministries.

If you want to gain a foothold in the Ministry of Criminal, have no solid professional knowledge and strong business ability. Fortunately, Qi Shan had the spirit of toughness and learning that the generals of the general flags did not have at that time. According to Chen Kangqi’s “Lang Qianji Wen Four Pen”, “Qi Yin was born in the criminal department, and he was not over the crown. The insulted by the staff, hate it, with three hundred Jinyan officials to the home, the north, and three years of the case. ” “Spring”, the older generation of Yunhan people, inspired the tension between the Manchu and Han of the Government Office at that time. There is a criminal department of the Qing Dynasty, and Manchuria officials are generally inferior to Han Division, regardless of cultural level or professionalism. It’s right. Unexpectedly, this has become the motivation to stimulate Qi Shan’s progress, and it is the old saying that “knowing shame and being close to courage”. However, how to quickly improve your business ability and level of case handling? At that time, most of the officials of the Ministry of Criminals were doing while studying, and they were mainly self -study. Qi Shan chose to ask for advice and smashed the money for himself to find a senior private tutor. You know, the Qing Dynasty is known as “the world with the officials”. At the central level, the six scholars take the rural and kinship as the bond, and the generations of generations to learn as a public office. Needless to doubt. Qi Shan could lower his figure and begging to ask for advice. He not only chose the right door, but also reflected the teachings of the sister -in -law. “Three years and the case are fine”, and a prisoner is so fresh.

In the past few years, Qi Shan quickly stood out because of his outstanding business capabilities, and his career was on the fast train. In the seventeenth year of Jiaqing (1812), Shenglangzhong. In eighteen years, Jingcha is class. In February 19th, the deputy envoy of the affairs of the political affairs. In October of the same year, Henan was awarded the inspection ambassador. At that time, Qi Shan was only twenty -five years old. Many young people today have not yet across the campus, and “Xiaoqi” has ranked among the Qing Provincial and Ministerial -level officials.

“Xiao Qi” is the nickname given to Qi Shan’s officialdom during the officialdom of Jia and Dao. Behind the name is mixed with the arrogance of the old -fashioned heng autumn and the admiration of the later life. Speaking of Qi Shan’s previous achievements, the history books are briefly recorded. We must not be detailed, but through the words of the Qing people, we can still appreciate the glory and scenery of the excellent criminal officer. For example, “Daoxian Hai Sea Sea” contains: “(Qi Shan) in the Ministry of Criminal Affairs, Pei Qiqi’s key, comprehensively running autumn trials for many years, known as the” white bun dragon picture “.” (P. 154) There are eighteen Qing officials, each of which is a senior or prominent manager of the company. “Palm seal, the key of Pei Siyin. Its things are the most honorable, all flags, and the hoods are constantly embroidered with the waist to show their own differences.” “The key of Siyin shows the prominentness of Qishan’s ability and the emphasis on being leaned.

Of course, it is not the “Pay Seven Division Key”, but the experience of “comprehensive autumn review”. The autumn trial system is a national judicial ceremony carrying the concept of concept of shirts, and the autumn trial office of the Ministry of Criminal Affairs is the core hub department that is directly responsible for the autumn review, especially the case. The person in charge of the autumn trial office is called the “general office”, ranging from about one or two, two or three members, and has the highest status among the officials of the Ministry of Criminal Affairs. “The five cities of the eighteen lines of the world, the five cities of the Beijing Division, and the Qin Paid Office, the major of the prison is returned to the Ministry of the Criminal Ministry. Ten people, only one or two people who hold their program. If they are one or two, they must decide their Ming Min. “Also.” (He Shaoji’s “Fujian Xingquan Yongbing Preparation of Xiongjun Tomb Watch”, “Dongzhou Caotang Cultural Banknote” Volume 16 “Monument”) Zhang Jixin’s “Comprehensive Office” is also the General Office. Qi Shan has worked in such an important post for many years. He actually presided over the review of the death penalty case of the Qing Dynasty. It can be seen that the evaluation of “talents and self -conflict” is not a false language.

The characteristics of Qishan’s case handling can seem to be summarized by the word “strict”. The comparison of “Bao Longtu” is just the savvy and efficient description of Qishan’s case. Therefore, this is because Qi Shan’s own talent is high and his business ability is outstanding. Emperor Daoguang once praised Qi Shan’s “Smart” in front of the minister, (“Dao Xianhuan Sea Sea”, p. 118). Secondly, it is determined by its judicial and administrative concepts. Zhang Jixin said that Qi Shan “extended to the members of the company and disciplined his children, intended to be strict.” „Äč Volume 50) The language of the admission of people, a ancient bureaucratic image that is strictly disciplined and strictly treats others has already been screamed. This reflects Qi Shan’s personality from a side, and it seems closer to ancient officials. However, if judicial officials are strictly strict, there will be no mistakes. In the twenty -two years of Jiaqing, Henan lost his charges in the case of Qi Shan who was in the case of the inspection. The so -called “lost in” refers to the exclusion of the minor crime of the law of private law. It can be seen that the experts have also lost their hands.

But then again, it is the highest state of justice. Who can do everything in real life? Therefore, the punishment of the relegation retention is not so much a punishment, it is better to be a knock and reminder. In the following two years, Qi Shan still continued the momentum of the rise of the official career. From the perspective of the inspection, the administration was taken by the governor and governor, until the five years of Daoguang (1825) to the Governor of Two Rivers, this year Qi Shan was 36 years old. Essence

The transformation from a prisoner to the officials of Fengjiang, and Qi Shan, who was in the red Miao, and the savvy and strong, should be a complete water. However, the world is impermanent, and the officialdom is even more impermanent. The truth is often, the higher the climbing, the more miserable it falls. In this regard, Qi Shan must have a deep experience.

On November 29, 1840, Qi Shan arrived in Guangzhou as a minister, and “investigated the incident” in order to seize the “bad stall” left by Lin Zexu Guangdong. Unfortunately, although Qi Shan changed his former Lin Zexu’s tough route, he was in peace, but he failed to properly resolve disputes between China and Britain, causing the war back, and forced to sign the “Cao Pang Cao Covered” to cut Hong Kong. When the news came to Beijing, Long Yan was furious, and Qi Qi Shan “Gu En mistaken the country and lost his best”. In the next few months, after the senior officials such as the Minister of the King, the senior executives will be tried and planned to have a chopping supervisor. Finally, the emperor opened the grace and released it to the Zhejiang military camp to atone for atonement.

Among Qi Shan’s many crimes, private cutting Hong Kong is undoubtedly the most serious in nature. Mao Haijian believes: “Qi Shan’s resistance during the negotiations of Guangdong … According to Confucianism and the laws of the Qing Dynasty, Qi Shan is criminal.” Page 218) Is this really true? In fact, there are other ways to say. For example, Chongyi’s “The Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Ji of the Daoxian”: “Qi Wenqin is good and good, in order to handle diplomacy, cut Hong Kong in the UK, and so far the people of the country have been criticized. It is unknown that after observing his conviction, Fu Siku’s prison, such a minister offended, he must send a statement of news, and the non -criminal ministerial official can settle. When Qi Gong handed his relatives, he was buckled with a yellow folding box. Inner Xuanzong wrote Zhu Yan himself. The Minister of Defense knew that there must be an emperor’s sign of the emperor. If he did not dare to see it, he still held the original person back and was stored in the middle of the hall. Although he was convicted as usual. Ye Erqiang helped the minister. Gai Xuanzong was ashamed of the matter. At that time, the first office negotiated, and I did not know the foreign situation, which made others do it. “(Beijing Ancient Books Publishing House, 1982, p. 56, 56 )

He failed to retreat, and he did the same to the widow of the country. Only in this regard, without waiting to be tried, Qi Shan was already a sinner. And “Sinners” Qi Shan is in the disadvantage of “all people want to kill”, and still do not forget to fight according to reason. Patients are particularly noticed, and the proof of the empty mouth white teeth does not deserve the text. The awareness of the evidence as a legal person can be seen. Fortunately, the emperor was quite kind and did not kill the killer because of this, but opened the Internet. Looking at the next year later, Emperor Daoguang regained the upper time released by Qi Shan: “Qi Shan and other duties and governance, because of the poor handling of the past, the confidence of the ignorance, so that the funeral loses the law, and there is no success. I can only return to bow. Self -blame, deepen, and deepen, how can he be a criminal work, with self -wide solution? “

A few years later, Qi Shan, who returned to the ranks of the governor, caused his upper body again because of abuse and killing mature. “The Biography of the Qing Dynasty” records: “Shining Hebei Fan, Xining, and Hunting is a great harm for Gansu, Liang, Su and so on.” Qi Shan, who was the Governor of Shaanxi and Gansu and the Minister of Qinghai, once again showed his ability The fierce and iron -wrist methods of the officials and officials, in person, led the army to live in the “bandit” of Yongsha Fan, Yefan, and Black City Sara, which are settled in Hailan. surrender. Unexpectedly, the local and central government continued to impeach Qi Shan to kill Liangliang and torture. The Emperor Xianfeng, who had just ascended the throne, ordered the Baiqi Han Army to gym in Xining to investigate the case, as well as the three members of the criminal department. After some investigation, the investigation team affirmed Qi Shan’s “still not to do nothing for the teacher for no reason”, and on the other hand, it also pointed out that Qi Shan did have a “delusional killing” in the process of recruitment, so as to prove the previous impeachment of impeachment Not groundless. As a result, Qi Shan was questioned, and a scene ten years ago was staged again.

As a member of Qi Shan Yipin and Manchu Hou Ye, he was destined to be high specifications and unusual trials. The trial of the Three Law Division was not enough. In the first year of Xianfeng (1851), on August 12th, Zeng Guofan, the right waiter of the Ministry of Li Department and the right waiter, wrote in his home book: “The Ministry of Criminal Ministry … Now the case of Qi Shan is tight. “Shi Qishan has been subject to the prison of the Ministry of Criminal Affairs. Zeng Guofan, as one of the main personnel of the case, must feel an invisible pressure. The difficulty of the case lies not only the special identity of the defendant, but also the defendant’s refusal to plead guilty. “Ask questions, not convinced”, “arguing”, and even directly questioning the officials of the main trial: “Fanzi is illegal, why not be?” Of course, Qi Shan, the defendant, did not blindly play, and he also cleverly used his relationship with political enemies to defend himself. Qi Shan and Lin Zexu. At that time, the two people thought that the two were the same as the fire. The fourth volume of Wu Rulun’s Complete Works, Huangshan Book Club, 2002, p. 378) He also “buffet for more than a thousand words, which means that Sa Ying Azo is framed”, which has won the sympathy of many people, ” It is also the original player of Sa Gong. “

It is worth mentioning that Zeng Guofan’s fear of friends, Shi Lang, a criminal ministry, and Shao Yichen, a military plane Zhang Jing, submitted the severe opinions of the prosecution, and pointed at Qi Shan’s abuse. And Qi Shan could even achieve “unyielding”, and even asked to debate with Shao Yichen: “Public and other questions, but not in prison, but Shao Jun knows the source of the ear, public, etc. Please retreat, so that the public and other should be retired. Shao Junlai. “(The fourth volume of” Complete Works of Wu Runlun “, p. 378) Although it is the defendant, it is still a stance of all. Essence However, in the church, the public positions were holding the position of the people, and the “strong duel” of the two generations of prison masters failed to be performed, and the case was delayed for a long time. The emperor made the final instructions: Qi Shan transferred his troops to wash Yongshafan’s unknown, “it is a fallacy”, the key is that he did not invite the emperor in advance, “especially power”, punishment is indispensable. Atonement. In the view of Zeng Guofan, the case of Qi Shan’s killing was mainly from political contention and official morale, and “real injustice.”

So, is the two major cases against Qi Shan?At present, I am afraid that the benevolent can only see the wisdom and wisdom.However, if we can get rid of the rough narrative framework of the “big history” and pay more attention to historical details and individual destiny, I believe that the historical figures of Qi Shan will have a more understanding.Anyway, the experience of becoming a prisoner in the order is definitely a ironic for this former legal person. Perhaps it is explaining that the waves of wave clouds and technical rationality of the officialdom of the late Qing Dynasty are not enough to respond to the world.

Editor in charge: Zhong Yuan

School pair: Luan Meng