Learn about common fat -soluble vitamins
In the previous magazine, we introduced water -soluble vitamins. In this issue, I will talk to you with another large classification of vitamins -fat -soluble vitamins.
Fre and vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K in common lipopolytic vitamins. They are dissolved in fat and fat agents and insoluble in water. In food, they exist with lipids. After being intake by human body, most of them are stored in adipose tissue. When fat -soluble vitamin lacks, the symptoms are slow. It is worth mentioning that compared to excessive intake of water -soluble vitamin, it can be excluded from urine. Lipstick -soluble vitamins are insoluble in water. Once too much intake, it is easy to cause poisoning
Vitamin A includes A1 and A2, where vitamin A1 is also called retinol. Vitamin A has a variety of physiological functions such as promoting growth and reproduction, maintaining normal secretion of bones, epithelial tissue, vision, and mucosal epithelium. When lacking, it shows that night blindness is caused by slow growth and dullness.
The recommended intake of adult vitamin A in my country (RNI) is the active amount of 800UG retinol activity per day, and women are 700UG retinol activity per day. Foods containing more vitamin A (Table 1) include poultry, liver liver, egg yolk, milk powder. Carotene can be transformed into vitamin A in the small intestine mucosa, red and yellow and dark green vegetables and fruits contain carotene.
It is worth mentioning that the processing and thermal treatment of food help increase the release of carotene in food and increase its absorption rate. However, long -term high temperature, especially under the conditions of aerobic and ultraviolet irradiation, the lack of vitamin A has increased significantly. The method of cooking in my country is 70%to 90%of carotene.
In addition, the toxic side of vitamin A mainly depends on the intake of retinol and alcohol, and is related to the physiological and nutritional status of the body. The concentration of liver vitamin A exceeds 300mg/g is considered excessive and will cause corresponding clinical toxicity. Excessive clinical manifestations of acute vitamin A include severe rash, headache, and pseudo -brain tumor coma and cause rapid death. Chronic excessive excessiveness is relatively common. Clinical manifestations include central nervous system disorder symptoms, liver fibrosis, ascites and skin damage.
Table 1 Vitamin A or carotene content in several foods: μg/100g
Source “Reference Increased intake of Chinese Resident Dietary Nutrition” (edited by the Chinese Nutrition Society)
Compared to other vitamins, sugar friends are definitely not unfamiliar with vitamin D. (In the magazine in 2019, there is an article “Vitamin D deficiency, what impact does vitamin D lack of vitamin D?” -This Note) Vitamin D is a steroid derivative, which is a kind of fat -soluble vitamin. Its lack will not only lead to cartilage and osteoporosis, but also have a certain connection with metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, etc.
Generally, adults often expose the sunlight and does not cause a lack of disease. Infants, children, pregnant women, nursing nurses, and elderly people who do not often arrive outdoor activities should increase the supply of vitamin D to 10 μg (equivalent to 400 international units) per day. Food source (Table 2) is relatively large with high fat, animal liver, egg yolk, and cream, and high content in cod liver oil.
It should be noted that the vitamin D of food sources is generally not excessive. However, excessive intake of vitamin D supplementary products may have side effects and even vitamin D poisoning. Symptoms of vitamin D poisoning include: hypercalcemia, hyper urinary calcium, muscle fatigue, joint pain, diffuse osteopathelation, and general orientation capacity disorders. Symptoms of mild poisoning include loss of appetite, anorexia, nausea, irritability, vomiting, thirst, polyuria, constipation or diarrhea alternately. If not treated in time, severe vitamin D poisoning can cause death and prevent excessive vitamin poisoning. The most effective way is to avoid abuse of vitamin D supplements. If necessary, it should be carried out under the guidance of a doctor.
Table 2 Foods rich in vitamin D (unit: IU/100g)
Source: American “Food and Nutrition Encyclopedia”
Vitamin E is an important antioxidant in 8 forms of fat -soluble vitamins. The intake of vitamin E of Chinese residents is different from the West. The dietary structure of Chinese people is mainly based on plant food, and the intake of vitamin E is generally high. Foods rich in vitamin E are: squeezing vegetable oil, fruits and vegetables, nuts, lean meat, milk, eggs, citrus peel, etc. Fruit and vegetables include kiwi, spinach, cabbage, vegetable plugs, cabbage cabbage, lettuce, sweet potato, yam. Nuts include almonds, hazelnuts and walnuts.
Therefore, under normal circumstances, ordinary people do not need to use vitamin E supplement. Once excessive intake, it is prone to toxic and side effects, which not only reduces the body’s immune function, but also causes headache, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, and amenorrhea, and even cause thrombosis and pulmonary embolism due to platelet aggregation. For the elderly, because the pulmonary embolism can cause edema and lungs in the area near the embolism, it will affect the diffuse function and reduce the pressure of the arterial blood oxygen. For the elderly, less embolism can cause pulmonary high pressure, and then complications such as heart failure.
Vitamin K is also called coagulant vitamin. Vitamin K has a physiological role in preventing new babies, preventing internal bleeding and hemorrhoids, reducing a large amount of bleeding in the physiological period, and promoting normal blood solidification. Therefore, it has a certain application in clinical practice. Healthy people have a low amount of vitamin K and have a lot of diets in diets, and primary vitamin K is missing. It can be seen clinically due to the lack of vitamin K. Bleeding and central nervous system bleeding.
The most common adult vitamin K lack of sexual bleeding occurs in patients who consume low diets containing vitamin K and take antibiotics. Vitamin K is insufficient. Inflammatory diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, segmented small enteritis, short bowel syndrome, biliary obstruction, pancreatic incomplete function, etc. The above conditions need to be routinely supplemented with vitamin K preparations.
There are two sources of vitamin K: on the one hand, it is synthesized from the intestinal bacteria, mainly K2, accounting for 50-60%. On the other hand, from the food, it is mainly K1, accounting for 40 to 50%, and the content of green leafy vegetables is high, followed by milk and meat, and the content of fruits and cereals is low.