Artificial synthetic starch-Kaizong faction is comparable to artificial insulin

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Artificial synthetic starch-Kaizong faction is comparable to artificial insulin

This article is transferred from the public account-Industrial Intelligence

Can humans artificially combine carbon dioxide into starch, that is, food? Regarding this issue, Chinese scientists lasted more than 6 years of scientific research, giving affirmation and detailed answers.

Following the first time in the world in the 1960s, artificial synthetic crystalline cattle insulin (protein), Chinese scientists have achieved significant disruptive and original breakthroughs in artificial synthetic starch -the first international carbon dioxide to starch artificial artificial artificially internationally internationally laboratory artificial artificial articles Chemical-biological synthesis.

In the early morning of September 24th, Beijing time, the artificial synthetic starch science and technology breakthrough progress of the progress of the results of the results of the results of the results of the results of the results of the results of the results of the achievement of the results of the achievement of the results of the achievement of the results of the achievement of the results of the famous international academic journal “Science” , To create a “open window” for industrial workshops from carbon dioxide to starch production.

The title of this paper is “Cell-Free Chemoenzymatic Starch Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide” (from carbon dioxide-free cell chemical composite starch).

The article says that the starch synthesis rate of this manual pathway is 8.5 times that of corn starch synthesis rates, which takes a big step towards the realization of natural and beyond natural goals.

Provide a new scientific foundation for the creation of new functions, and will also open up a new path for the future of carbon dioxide synthetic starch from carbon dioxide, making the industrialized biological manufacturing of starch in the future possible.

This is the second peak breakthrough in the field of biological sciences in my country. It is a complex organic matter such as starch. This is also the main component of our food!

Grain, starch and sugar

What is starch? Maybe many people have forgotten the same, and they need to review the common sense of students in middle schools.

Starch is polysaccharide, which is relatively simple organic compound.

Organic compounds refer to carbides, sulfides, carbonate, carbonate, cyanide, metal compounds, such as carbon and hydrogen elements, do not include carbon -containing carbon -containing substances.

Organic substances are based on a complex long chain based on the carbon chain and hydrogen hydrogen chain, and are the material foundation generated by life. “Sugar” in chemistry and biological sense generally refers to monosaccharides (glucose, fructose) and polymers.

Glucose molecular stereo model, 6 carbon forms of backbone straight chain

Monosaccharides include glucose, galactose, pear sugar, glycotose, glycogen, em, ribetose, and deoxyrocose.

Glucosaccharides and lactose are straight hydroxyl aldehyde (olin), and fructose and pear sugar are straight hydroxylthoone (heyone).

Two sugar includes sucrose (Portuguese+fruit), maltose (Portuguese+Portuguese, α glycoside), lactose (Portuguese+half), fiber glycogen (Portuguese+Portuguese, β glycoside) and so on.

The polysaccharide is the polymer of the above monosaccharides and two sugar.

Caption: glucose molecular structure

Focus on glucose, which is the most important and most important type of monosaccharide in nature, molecular C6H12O6.

Glucose is monosaccharide. Two glucose is connected together to become maltose, which is also called bicoseki.

If a few more, 3-9 glucose will become low glycogen. If you continue to connect, more than 10 or more will become polysaccharides, (C6H10O5) n.

Of course, because different connections are different, things are different. For example, starch, such as cellulose, such as glycogen, such as chitosan, such as vanada.

Sugar and starch are collectively referred to as carbohydrates, and they are called three major energy substances with fat and protein. That is the three basic compositions of human food.

When people eat (rice, steamed buns), amylase will decompose starch into monosaccharides, and eventually absorbs the digestive system.

Then monopolytic response occurs in the organism, releases heat, and provides the needs of the organism.

Therefore, the three major staple foods of human beings -rice, flour, corn, and crops behind them -rice, wheat, vanadium, potatoes, sweet potatoes, etc. are essentially starch manufacturing plants.

And their source is the famous photosynthesis:

Under the catalysis of the energy input and chlorophyll of the sun, carbon dioxide and water in the air into starch and release oxygen.

This is the essence of plant growth and the essence of agriculture.

Major disruptive technology that affects the world

Natural crops produced starch through natural photosynthesis, and the synthesis and accumulation involved more than 60 biochemical reactions and complex physiological regulation. The theoretical energy conversion efficiency was only about 2%.

The planting of crops usually requires a long period of time, and a large amount of land, freshwater and other resources, as well as agricultural production materials such as fertilizers and pesticides.

The grain crisis and climate change are major challenges facing humans. Sustainable supply of grain starch and carbon dioxide conversion and utilization are the strategic directions of today’s world scientific and technological innovation.

Instead of relying on plant photosynthetic effects, designing artificial biological systems to fix carbon dioxide synthetic starch, which is a major disruptive technology that affects the world.

Under the leadership of the director Ma Yanhe, the Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences began to focus on studying artificial starch biological synthesis and CO2 in 2015. The project leader was Cai Tao, an associate researcher.

Faced with the tedious 60 -step biological synthesis steps (the plant specifically has C3 pathway and two C4 routes two carbon lines), scientists are not simple imitation or deletion, but redesigned a relatively short artificial route. , Only 11 steps in total.

From the big aspect, it can be summarized into four stages:

CO2C1 (there is an organic matter of a carbon atom in the molecule, the same below) C3C6 (glucose) CN (that is, starch).

Specifically:

First, the carbon dioxide and water use inorganic catalysts are restored to methanol (that is, C1, carbon one), which is already a relatively mature chemical synthesis process.

The methanol was then converted into C3 (dihydroxylcetone), and the next step was C3 synthesized C6 (glucose). Finally, the aggregation became a starch long chain.

The process of building blocks that is easy to say is the biological synthesis process.

Specific 11 steps:

1. Under the action of zinc oxide-oxide catalyst, high-concentration of carbon dioxide and water, energy supply reaction, catalytic hydrogenation, and reaction into methanol (CH3-OH).

2. Monol is oxidized by oxygen, takes off two hydrogen, and becomes formaldehyde (CH2-O). Oxygen comes from hydrogen peroxide.

3. Formaldehyde contraction to form dihydroxylcetone (C3).

4.ATP energy supply to form a dihydroxyl acetone phosphate to form a methalin hydroxylthonthone.

5. The ketone is arranged with the neighboring hydroxyl group to form a neighboring hydroxyl group, and the heterogeneous composition is 3-phosphate.

6.C3 The substance through the bonus reaction, two or 20 % rings, forming a 5 -atomic oxygen ring.

7. Remove part of the phosphate

8. The five -dollar ring is ranked into a six -yuan oxygen ring, forming a glucose set (C6).

9. The neighboring hydroxyl group in phosphate is used to prevent the ring.

10. A adenoside.

11. Desert acid, aggregate into starch (CN).

In fact, there are no life processes in nature in nature.

Researchers use the idea of ​​computing biology. From 6568 chemical reactions and biological synthesis pathways, a artificial route from carbon dioxide to starch that only needs 11 steps to reacts is designed.

These are drafted through computer simulation design, through modular assembly and replacement adaptation, and continuously test, assemble and adjust each module, and open up the synthesis path.

This route combines chemical catalytic and bio -catalytic technology to give full play to the advantages of fast chemical catalytic speed and biocuk synthetic compound compounds.

In practical operations, each step is not very compatible, such as the required reaction conditions are not the same.

In order to meet the continuous response conditions, and through the modular thinking, different reaction processes were selected, and this 11 -step reaction path was explored.

Scientists then transform catalytic enzymes through protein biological engineering to improve reaction efficiency and speed.

Scientific researchers have tapped and transformed 62 biological enzyme catalysts from 31 different species such as animals, plants, and microorganisms. In the end, 10 species were selected and transformed.

This series of operations is the operation of classic synthetic biology. These 10 enzymatic processes are the essence of this breakthrough.

The Tianjin Industrial Biological Institute lasted 3 years, and the first successful CO2 starch was synthesized on July 24, 2018. This is the 1.0 version.

After solving the problems with or not, it takes 3 years to optimize:

The 2.0 solution optimizes the response efficiency. Protein engineering is optimized for three bottleneck -related enzymes.

In this way, the amount of biological enzyme catalysts is nearly doubled, and the yield of starch has increased by 13 times.

The 3.0 scheme combines chemical reactions (CO2 hydrogenation) with subsequent biological enzyme reactions.

By reacting the separation and space separation optimization, the problem of substrate competition, product suppression, and intermediate product toxicity in the pathway were solved, and the biochemical joint reaction system was established.

The 3.1 version of the scheme, which is currently announced, uses the enzyme (Starch Branching Enzyme) obtained from Vibrio Vulnificus (a type of vulnificus) to generate a direct chain-branch chain starch ratio that is closer to the starch structure in reality.

Based on 20%of the photoelectric conversion efficiency, the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of chemical and biological miscellaneous synthetic starch systems can reach 7%, and the starch synthesis rate has increased by 3.5 times compared with the photosynthesis of natural plants.

This is “a breakthrough in milestone in the field of biological synthesis”.

Cost and future industrial production

Of course, it is undeniable that the success of laboratory synthesis is more proven principle feasible, exploring a new path for all humans.

Large -scale industrial production must have a long distance. So what are the things in the future?

The first is to reduce costs. Among the current series of reactions, the highest cost is enzymatic reactions.

Students who engage in creatures know that the price of a small tube enzyme is not uncommon.

At present, this study is a reaction system that supports 1 liters per 12 grams of catalyst, with a life span of 500 hours.

How to further reduce the production cost of enzymes and improve the efficiency of enzymes are very important research directions.

The second step also includes the consideration of energy costs.

The environmental cost and economic cost of plants using light can synthesize starch are very low. Can the energy consumption efficiency of artificial synthesis routes compare with solar panels?

In addition, industrialized foods, as well as another route that envisages, “Plant Factory”, that is, to provide photosynthetic effects on plants with LED fluorescent lamps.

Artificially synthesize starch from carbon dioxide. Can the energy consumption efficiency and production cost of this route be lower, or at least not significantly higher than the “plant factory” model?

This will be an important economic measurement indicator. But in the future, the value of this technology is undoubtedly founded with the goal of the sea of ​​stars.

After all, if you break through the controlling nuclear fusion technology and have unlimited energy, the energy source continues to produce starch, which is still very fragrant.

The carbon dioxide directly synthesizes starch, with a short manual response step, and the synthetic speed is 8.5 times the natural process. It takes 11 hours to start the first batch of starch production.

When the system stabilizes, the rate of starch is 410 mg per hour per hour. According to calculations, an ideal condition of 1 cubic meter (1000 liters) one year (8760 hours) can produce 3591.6 kg of starch, which is 3.6 tons.

For the most efficient corn in starch, the average production of the United States in the country is 750 kg per mu, and China is only 400 kilograms.

According to the current technical parameters, the annual starch yield of 1 cubic meters of bioreactor is theoretically equivalent to the annual output of 5 acres of corn (US) or even 9 acres (China).

9 acres of land, 6000 square meters, 100 meters × 60 meters, which is a football field size!

If the overall cost of this process can be reduced to economically comparable to agricultural planting, it is expected that more than 90%of cultivated land and freshwater resources will be saved, showing the great potential beyond natural crops.

Scientists are more imaginative than science fiction writers

Do you remember the magic drama “Star Tranquil”?

The earth’s food is only corn, but corn is also at stake!

Therefore, human beings have to send a spacecraft to explore the second earth that is distant.

Do you remember the magic drama “Wandering Earth”?

In the wandering of humans to push the earth to another galaxy, earthworms have become valuable proteins that can be eaten by humans.

Speaking of a little bit of understanding of the plant factory, you will sniff.

To be honest, the imagination of most science fiction writers is limited.

Humans can achieve cross -space -time interstellar travel. As a result, the most basic food problems are not solved?

Those who are really more imaginative depends on scientists.

The previous idea was that in the three -dimensional building occupied, artificial light sources promoted plant growth and built a “plant factory”.

Now, it has become at the molecular level to directly achieve artificial synthetic starch from carbon dioxide, and has created a new innovation track.

Looking back at 10,000 years ago, the ancestors of human beings found that the seeds of some plants landed and could grow new generations in half a year. These new seeds containing starch can also be eaten and filling their stomachs.

So people discovered barley and wheat in the Middle East, chestnuts and rice were discovered in East Asia, and corn and sweet potatoes were discovered in the Americans.

This is the origin of agriculture and human settlement, and it is also a key step from awareness to modern people.

With agriculture, small stock tribes that were born all the way settled all the way, there were villages, city -states, and civilization and state.

10,000 years, 5,000 years, two thousand years, 400 years. Starting from the settlement of agriculture, human civilization has come all the way.

Learn to use fire, make pottery, smelting metals, invent text, learn to navigate, invent steam engines, internal combustion engines, unlock fossil energy use, understand and master power, electronic, aerospace …

At present, agriculture covers all farming land between 60 ° north -south latitude. Agricultural issue has always been related to human life and death.

It is indeed one of the most important inventions of human beings in 10,000 years

The transformation of traditional agricultural planting models to the industrial workshop production model is currently known in the direction of civilization. Synthetic starch technology is the first step in turning agriculture into industrialized production.

It replaces relatively inefficient energy conversion methods in nature, obtains artificial efficient energy utilization, and produces starch with less land and higher speeds, which is the progress of agriculture to industry.

In addition, the technical routes of industrial production of grain and clean energy such as wind power are perfect.

The electricity sent out during the period of electricity use directly synthesizes starch to store, which can not only ensure the reasonable use of electrical energy, but also consume carbon dioxide and reduce the greenhouse effect.

The biological economic model provides a new solution to the “carbon neutralization” goal.

The next step is to solve the protein from scratch from the beginning of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Human beings can no longer depend on agriculture and rely on the slow synthesis of optical synthesis.

Without climate geographical restrictions, high -efficiency production of food, alcohol, animal feed, industrial raw materials and other necessities directly in factories around the world, and do not need to rely on long -distance delivery.

At the same time, most of the arable land can be used to return farmland to forests, restore the ecology, improve the environment, and improve human living conditions.

Some people say that “the 21st century may be the century of creatures.”

In essence, there are two key keys to start the future world:

Infinite energy and infinite food.

Now it seems that these two keys are actually two sides. It can be said that the same key.

Because food is the energy required by the human body.

The production of food, planting crops, and developing agriculture is essentially using solar energy.

Plant photosynthesis is carbon, oxygen, and solar energy.

Animals eat plant digestion and breathing, which is oxidation, carbon discharge, and release energy, which is a reverse reaction.

Standing in time and space in 2021, the “artificial sun” that can control nuclear fusion can be seen, and “infinite energy” is about to be unlocked.

However, before today, the imagination of “agricultural factory” still stays at the level of “three -dimensional agriculture and electric lamp planting grain after the implementation of the controlling nuclear fusion”.

In other words, this is a technology that has never been conceived at all.

Controlled nuclear fusion+agricultural factory, this key on both sides, will unlock human development limit, is indeed one of the most important inventions of human beings in 10,000 years.

It is comparable to the results of the use of fire and use of electricity, and it is the founding stone of future civilization.

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